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Western Civilization Ms. Tully.  500-338 BCE – Greek civilization reached high point ◦ Philosophy, architecture, drama, warfare  Herodotus (ca. 485-425)

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Presentation on theme: "Western Civilization Ms. Tully.  500-338 BCE – Greek civilization reached high point ◦ Philosophy, architecture, drama, warfare  Herodotus (ca. 485-425)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Western Civilization Ms. Tully

2  BCE – Greek civilization reached high point ◦ Philosophy, architecture, drama, warfare  Herodotus (ca ) ◦ “Father of history” ◦ Recorded oral accounts of Persian War

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4  Cyrus the Great conquered Ionia in 547 BCE ◦ Appointed tyrants to govern independent- minded Greeks  Ionian city-states rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BCE ◦ Help from Athens and Eritrea

5  Battle of Marathon – 25 miles from Athens ◦ Persian war machine – massive naval expedition & infantry ◦ Hoplites defeated lightly armed Persian infantry ◦ 6400 Persians dead vs. 192 Greeks ◦ Greek victory – taught Greeks they could defeat the Persians  Persian rule passed from Darius the Great to his son Xerxes ◦ Built up massive campaign to invade Greece ◦ Temporary setbacks b/c of Egyptian revolts

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7  Unified Greek city-states ◦ Spartans - overall leadership ◦ Themosticles of Athens – naval commander  Battle of Thermopylae ◦ Spartan king Leonidas and his personal bodyguard of 300 men ◦ Supported by allied Greek troops ◦ Two days of battle against Persians ◦ Betrayed by local resident – scouts revealed this to Leonidas

8 ◦ Dismissed allied troops – Held pass with 300 men for one more day, but all were killed or captured ◦ Persians occupied most of mainland Greece ◦ Athens evacuated in advance of Persian invasion  Battle of Salamis ◦ Naval battle in narrow Salamis straits ◦ Persian numbers became a hindrance ◦ Greeks won – sinking/capturing 200+ Persian ships ◦ Xerxes retreated with majority of his army  Battles of Plataea and Myclae, 479 BCE ◦ Final defeat of remaining Persian army

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12  Demonstrated independence of Greeks – would not be dominated by outside culture or monarchy ◦ Monarchy = very un-Greek ◦ Symbolized lack of freedom  Greeks defined by freedom and independence  Ensured that Greek ideals and culture would be passed on to future generations

13  Athens formed the Delian League – a military naval alliance of Greek city-states from around the Aegean – shortly after Persian war ◦ Led by Pericles (ca BCE) ◦ Intellectual, aggressive, imperialistic ◦ Eventually became Athenian empire

14  Growing power of Athens worried Sparta ◦ Numerous clashes between allies of Athens and Sparta in years leading up to Peloponnesian wars ◦ Led to war between the two city-states and their allies  Sparta and its allies besieged Athens repeatedly ◦ Athens built walls around city for protection ◦ Athenians cloistered in city ◦ Plague in 430 – killed 1/3 of population (including Pericles)  Athenians had naval power ◦ Triremes – Athenian ships built for speed ◦ Repeated attacks on coastline of Peloponnesus

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17  Peace of Nicias (421 BCE) ◦ Resulted in cold war (sort of…) ◦ Invasion of Melos – demonstration of Athenian brutality ◦ Alcibiades (ca BCE) – new ambitious Athenian leader  Invasion of Syracuse ◦ Alcibiades encouraged Athenians to invaded Syracuse in Sicily  Cut off grain supply to Spartans ◦ Alcibiades defected from Athenians to Spartans  Wanted to avoid trial, had many political enemies ◦ Nicias took over command of Athenian military ◦ Spartans sent reinforcements to Sicily ◦ Syracuse defeated Athenians in 413 BCE

18  Sparta declared war against Athens again in 413 BCE  Numerous revolts in Athenian empire (especially islands and Ionia)  Sparta created alliance with Persians ◦ Alcibiades idea ◦ Persians agreed to build navy fleet for Sparta so they could defeat Athenians

19  Alcibiades leaves Sparta for Athenians ◦ Led a series of victories against Spartans – Battle of Syme and Battle of Cyzicus  Spartan victory at Battle of Notium (406 BCE) ◦ Alcibiades leaves Athens ◦ Political infighting within Athens weakens and demoralizes navy  Battle of Aegospotami ◦ Lysander became new Spartan general – very cunning and excellent military strategist ◦ Sailed Spartan fleet to Hellespont – cut off grain supply to Athens ◦ Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow – completely defeated

20  Athenians starved into submission – surrendered in 404 BCE ◦ Gave up fleet, overseas possessions ◦ Corinth and Thebes wanted Athens destroyed ◦ Sparta allowed Athens to remain intact – cited great leadership during Persian war ◦ But Athens was beholden to Sparta – never rose to same level of power they once had


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