Presentation on theme: "CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 15 Scottish Puritanism PART 1."— Presentation transcript:
CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 15 Scottish Puritanism PART 1
PURITANISM “the haunting fear that someone might be happy!” H. L. Mencken “It was an effort to rid the Christianity of England from all things contrary to the biblical revelation, to remove all things, whether in doctrine, discipline, ceremony or polity which had been added by Rome”Dr. Edw Panosian “A ‘spiritual movement’ which developed under Elizabeth I (late 16 th century), blossomed in the Interregnum (1640’s and 1650’s) and withered in the persecution between the Restoration (1660) and Toleration (1689)”Dr. David Calhoun
The English Reformation Characteristics of the English Reformation It was more political than religious It was more organizational than doctrinal The English church was marked by continual upheaval FRAMEWORK:What happened when? There is no dominant spiritual figure WHO WERE THE PURITANS?
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 English Commonwealth 1649-1653 Cromwell 1653-1658 Charles II 1660-1685 James II 1685-1688 William & Mary 1688-1702 English Interregnum The English Reformation The Royal Players
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 The English Reformation The Royal Players
King James I King James VI of Scotland (1567-1603) became King when 13 months old King James I of England (1603-1625) became King when Elizabeth dies The Beginning of Great Britain Fluent in Greek, Latin, French, English, and his native Scots. Schooled in Italian and Spanish. King James was sickly having crippling arthritis, weak limbs, abdominal colic, gout, and a number of other chronic illnesses. He also had physical handicaps which affected his legs and tongue. Coupled with numerous attempts on his life, he required constant attention and watch care. His major concern – a centralized & powerful monarchy
King James I When he ascended to the throne RC, Presb, & Anglicans all had high hopes for him RC – his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, was catholic Presb – he was from Scotland; raised by Presb. Anglican – episcopacy supported King as head of church Presbyterians immediately appeal to the new King “looked forward to being in a country where the clergy could not instruct the King on what he should do!” Dr. Packer
The Millenary Petition – Puritan document requesting further church reforms The Hampton Court Conference – 1604 – Puritans asked for the following reforms Elimination of: 1.the signing of the cross during baptism 2.confirmation 3.the administration of baptism by women 4.use of the ring in marriage 5.bowing in the name of Jesus 6.dress of ministers – vestments 7.priests living in the church 8.end absolution 9.all church disciplined carried out by church and not for insignificant matters. Kings James rejected these requests, but did grant translation of the Bible in common language. King James Bible This would turn King James against Puritans and he would begin an ineffectual persecution of Puritans. THE NEW WORLD
King James I When he ascended to the throne RC, Presb, & Anglicans all had high hopes for him RC – his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, was catholic Presby – he was from Scotland, the heart of Presby, raised by Presby. Anglican – episcopacy supported King as head of church Presbyterians appealed to James at Hampton Conf of 1604 He was of low moral character which served to discredit him Declaration of Sports Failed to support Protestants in 30 years War
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 The English Reformation The Royal Players Charles I 1625-1649
Immigration to the New World Begins 1620 Plymouth – Bradford; 1630 - Mass. Bay Colony - Winthrop Charles blundered in Scotland by giving Laud full authority over Scottish church – War He turns to Ireland for an army – united Scottish Calvinists & English Puritans Needs money; calls Parliament back – Short Parliament Scotland wins and forces Long Parliament Civil War 1642 – 1648 – Cavaliers and Roundheads More moral than father, but less political savvy. Married a Catholic queen – Henrietta Maria of France Appoints William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, RC & Arminian Conflict with Parliament- money disbanded 1629-1640
During the Civil War 1642-1648 Parliament abolished the episcopal framework of church government The Parliament called together the Westminster Assembly to advise it and establish a new church order. 121 clergy 30 laymen Directory of Worship Westminster Confession of Faith Larger & Shorter Catechism Archbishop Laud is executed by Parliament King Charles I is executed Charles negotiates with Scots, Catholics, and MP’s
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 English Commonwealth 1649-1653 English Cromwell 1653-1658 Interregnum The English Reformation The Royal Players Civil War 1642 1648
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector He was a wealthy landowner descended from an advisory to Henry VIII Was converted and became a Puritan Independent When the civil war broke out, he returned home and raised a cavalry unit The King defeated at Naseby, Cromwell led the protestant cavalry Scots sided with Charles II Irish rebelled. England Protestants splintered Cromwell disbanded Parliament & became Lord Protector
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector He set out to reform church & state His religious policies were fairly tolerant religious freedom granted to Baptists, Quakers, Anglicans, Jews, & RC. Presby Puritans continued to fight for a state church Upon his natural death, his son Richard Cromwell unable to continue Protectorate Restoration of 1660 Presby & Anglicans join to bring Charles II from exile in France Political unrest – he is offered throne of England “Parliament was full of saints of God-who were terrible at government!” Dr. Packer
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 English Commonwealth 1649-1653 Cromwell 1653-1658 English Interregnum The English Reformation The Royal Players Civil War 1642 1648 Charles II 1660-1685
King Charles II Acts of Uniformity St Bartholomew's Day (August 24) 1662 2) All pastors take Oath of Consent ‘useable’ ‘needs no improvement whatsoever’ 3) Must regard Solemn League & Covenant ‘an unlawful oath’ 2,000 Puritans relinquish their pulpits 1) Episcopal ordination for all pastors 1665-66 Great Plague Underground church next 25 years 20,000 Puritans arrested 1685 Charles dies confessed Roman Catholic
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 English Commonwealth 1649-1653 Cromwell 1653-1658 Charles II 1660-1685 James II 1685-1688 English Interregnum The English Reformation The Royal Players Civil War 1642 1648
King James II Openly sought to return England to Roman Catholicism Brought in Jesuits & Monks Appointed Catholics to high office His wife presented him a son which insured him an heir to the throne His overt RC lead to the Protestant Rebellion called The Glorious Revolution of 1688
Elizabeth 1558-1603 James I 1603-1625 Charles I 1625-1649 English Commonwealth 1649-1653 Cromwell 1653-1658 Charles II 1660-1685 James II 1685-1688 William & Mary 1688-1702 English Interregnum The English Reformation The Royal Players Civil War 1642 1648
Religious Toleration – The Toleration Act of 1689 Subscribe to 39 Articles Swear loyalty to the sovereign James II, who had fled to Europe landed in Ireland with a French Army and Irish Catholics attempted to regain his throne. William defeated him 1690.
Anglican High Church (Arminian) Evangelical Low Church Anglicans 1534 Roman Catholics The Development of English Protestantism (Calvinistic) State Church Puritans Separatist Congregationalists Independents Presbyterians Purify Church of England
The Old English Puritane was such an one that honoured God above all, and under God gave every one his due. His first care was to serve God, and therein he did not what was good in his own, but in God’s sight, making the word of God the rule of his worship. He highly esteemed order in the House of God: but would not under colour of that submit to superstitious rites, which are superfluous and perish in their use…. He made conscience of all God’s ordinances, though some he esteemed of more consequence. He was much in praier; with it he began and closed the day. In it he was exercised in his closet, family and publike assembly. He esteemed that manner of praier best, where by the gift of God, expressions were varied according to present wants and occasions; Yet he did not account set forms unlawful. Therefore in that circumstance of the Church he did not wholly reject the liturgy but the corruption of it. He esteemed reading of the word an ordinance of God both in private and publike; but he did not account reading to be preaching..
. He accounted perspicuity the best grace of a preacher: And that method best which was most helpful to understanding, affection and memory... He accounted perspicuity the best grace of a preacher: And that method best which was most helpful to understanding, affection and memory... The Lord’s day he esteemed a divine ordinance, and rest on it necessary so far as it induced to holinesse. He was very consciencious in the observance of that day as the Mart day of the Soul.... The Sacrament of Baptism he received in Infancy, which he looked back to in his age to answer his ingagements, and claim his priviledges. The Lord’s Supper he accounted part of his soul’s food: to which he laboured to keep an appetite. He esteemed it an ordinance of nearest communion with Christ, so requiring most exact preparation.... He accounted religion an engagement to duty, that the best Christians should be the best husbands, best wives, best parents, best children, best Masters, best servants, best Magistrates, best subjects, that the doctrine of God might be adorned not blasphemed. His family he endeavoured to make a Church, both in regard of persons and exercises, admitting none into it but such as feared God; and labouring that those that were born in it, might be born again to God....
He was a man of a tender heart, not only in regard of his own sin, but others’ misery, not counting mercy arbitrary, but a necessary duty: wherein as he prayed for wisdom to direct him, so he studied for cheerfulnesse and a bounty to act.... In his habit he avoided costlinesse and vanity, neither exceeding his degree in civility nor declining what suited with Christianity, desiring in all things to expresse gravity. His whole life he accounted a warfare, wherein Christ was his captain, his arms, praiers and tears. The Crosse his Banner and his word Vincit qui patitur.