Presentation on theme: "Civil War Chapter 21:i The English Parliament had won several important rights by the 1500s."— Presentation transcript:
Civil War Chapter 21:i
The English Parliament had won several important rights by the 1500s.
Parliamentary powers included: approval of new taxes passage of laws proposed by the monarch advising monarchs
Even so, monarchs such as King Henry VIII still wielded more power than the Parliament.
English monarchs had the power to name officials and appoint judges,...
summon and dismiss parliament,...
and conduct foreign policy.
Henry VIII sought and won Parliament’s approval to establish the Church of England.
Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 leaving no direct heir to the English throne.
As a result, King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603.
James I believed that kings ruled by divine right.
“Kings are called gods because they sit upon God’s throne on earth.” - King James I
King James Bible
James I’s belief that kings should have no restraints on their power led to conflict with Parliament.
The English Parliament was a bicameral legislative assembly.
The House of Lords was composed of nobles who served for life and were known as Lords of the Realm.
The elected representatives to the House of Commons were mostly wealthy landowners known as the gentry.
James I and Parliament quarreled over: religion money foreign policy
Puritans wanted to “purify” the Anglican Roman Church of Catholic rituals and ceremonies.
James I constantly needed money to support his lavish lifestyle and pay for his wars with Catholic Spain.
James I angered Parliament when he revived feudal fines and increased customs duties.
Many people felt that James I did not give enough help to Protestants in Europe during the Wars of Religion.
Charles I inherited the throne from his father in Like James I, he believed in the divine right of kings.
The alliance with France was sealed when he married Louis XIII’s sister Henrietta Maria in 1624.
Charles I dismissed Parliament when it refused to give him enough money.
Charles I was forced to summon Parliament in 1628 because he needed funds desperately.
P e t i t i o n o f R i g h t n o f o r c e d l o a n s c a n n o t l e v y t a x e s w i t h o u t P a r l i a m e n t ’ s c o n s e n t c a n n o t i m p r i s o n a p e r s o n w i t h o u t c a u s e n o q u a r t e r i n g o f s o l d i e r s
After Parliament approved the funds he needed, Charles I dismissed it, ignored the Petition of Right, and returned to the policies of James I.
Charles I would rule for eleven years without calling another Parliament.
Charles I appointed unpopular officials such as William Laud to be Archbishop of Canterbury.
Charles I used special courts such as the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber to silence opposition.
A Scottish army invaded England in 1640 when Charles I tried to impose the Anglican Church on Scotland.
Charles I summoned Parliament in 1640 because he needed money to equip and for pay an army.
The Parliament called in 1640 would meet in one form or another until 1660 and become known as the Long Parliament.
Demanded trial and execution of Charles I’s chief ministers for abusing power. Warrant
Parliament abolished the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber.
The king was required to call a parliament at least once every three years.
Parliament condemned Charles I as a tyrant.
Compromise between Charles I and Parliament was made impossible when the king attempted to arrest five of his most outspoken opponents.
Sir Arthur Hazelrich
The king’s supporters were called Cavaliers.
Supporters of Parliament were called Roundheads because they cut their hair close to their heads.
A fully equipped pikeman
A typical 17th century musketeer with “twelve Apostles” containing pre-measured powder charges.
A political cartoon depicting a pillaging soldier.
Puritan army officer Oliver Cromwell reorganized Parliament’s army in 1645.
New Model Army Oliver Cromwell was known as “Ironsides” because of the strict discipline he enforced, and the fact that he never lost a battle while in command.
Battle of Naseby, 14th June 1645.
Charles I was put on trial by Parliament in January 1649.
Charles I was sentenced to die by having his head chopped off.
The House of Commons abolished both the monarchy and the House of Lords and proclaimed England a republic.
Cromwell was chosen to lead the new republic, or Commonwealth.
Reformers known as Levellers wanted to abolish titles of nobility and allow all English men the right to vote.
Parliament became so seriously divided that Cromwell dissolved it in 1654 and ruled England as a dictator with the title Lord Protector.
Cromwell used the army to govern the country and impose strict Puritan rule.
Richard Cromwell succeeded his father as Lord Protector of England.