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PARLIAMENT Elizabeth managed to work with Parliament for most of her reign Religious compromise began to deteriorate late in her reign Problems with Puritans.

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Presentation on theme: "PARLIAMENT Elizabeth managed to work with Parliament for most of her reign Religious compromise began to deteriorate late in her reign Problems with Puritans."— Presentation transcript:

1 PARLIAMENT Elizabeth managed to work with Parliament for most of her reign Religious compromise began to deteriorate late in her reign Problems with Puritans  Two grievances retention of Catholic ceremony & vestments continuation of the episcopal system

2 Puritans… 2 grievances Worked through Parliament to create an alternative national church with semiautonomous congregations Elizabeth refused to concede anything that lessened the unity of the Anglican Church and her control of it More extreme Puritans…Congregationalists 1593: Conventicle Act …conform or exile

3 JAMES I  1 ST Stuart king (King of Scotland)  Believed he ruled by divine right  Quarrels with Parliament  money  religion  Accomplishments  King James Bible 1611

4 CHARLES I

5 CHARLES AND PARLIAMENT..firm believer in divine right..too much pride and no common sense..always needed $$$ - War with France/Spain.. Parliament refused to give him $$ - he dissolved it : Petition of Right..1629: Charles dissolved Parliament : king ruled w/o Parliament resorted to all sorts of fees and fines unpopularity grew greater each year

6 The Petition of Right No jail without due cause No taxes without Parliament’s consent No housing soldiers in homes without the owner’s consent No martial law in peacetime What ideas seem familiar to you? Why might this document have additional meaning? What ideas seem familiar to you? Why might this document have additional meaning?

7 TOWARDS CIVIL WAR Religious policies Religious policies Puritans fled EnglandPuritans fled England William Laud appointed Archbishop of CanterburyWilliam Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury Laud forced Scottish Presbyterians to follow the AnglicansLaud forced Scottish Presbyterians to follow the Anglicans 1641: Parliament passed laws limiting the power of the king 1641: Parliament passed laws limiting the power of the king 1642: Charles & 400 soldiers stormed Commons to arrest 5 Puritan leaders. “ I see that the birds have flown.” 1642: Charles & 400 soldiers stormed Commons to arrest 5 Puritan leaders. “ I see that the birds have flown.” Then Charles Flees!Then Charles Flees!

8 CIVIL WAR Cavaliers v. Roundheads New Model Army Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell 100,000 casualties Parliament tries to disband NMA. Cromwell and NMA expel H of C. Cromwell and NMA expel H of C. Execution of the king January 30, 1649 January 30, 1649 “Behold the head of a traitor.” “Behold the head of a traitor.” 1 st time a king faced public trial and official execution 1 st time a king faced public trial and official execution “The question in dispute between the King’s party and us was whether the King should govern us as a god by his will, and the nation be governed by force by beasts; or whether the people should be governed by laws made by themselves and live under a government derived from their own account.”

9 THE COMMONWEALTH Cromwell ruled as “Lord Protector” Cromwell ruled as “Lord Protector” “You are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament, and I will put an end to your sitting.”“You are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament, and I will put an end to your sitting.” Reformed society Puritan laws (First constitution)Puritan laws (First constitution) Merrymaking and amusement illegal Merrymaking and amusement illegal Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 Richard…”Tumbledown Dick” ruled til 1660 Richard…”Tumbledown Dick” ruled til 1660

10 IRELAND Irish began rebelling after the death of Charles I Irish began rebelling after the death of Charles I Cromwell led a Protestant army to Ireland in August, 1649 Cromwell led a Protestant army to Ireland in August, 1649 Drogheda Drogheda all 9000 residents massacred all 9000 residents massacred Irish lands given to English soldiers Irish lands given to English soldiers Northern counties set aside as English property Northern counties set aside as English property 616,000 Irish…1/2 the population perished between 1641 and ,000 Irish…1/2 the population perished between 1641 and 1652

11 CHARLES II AND THE RESTORATION King King drama and poetry drama and poetry more moderate more moderate issues with Parliament…money and religion 1670: Treaty of Dover 1679: Habeas Corpus Act no legitimate children deathbed conversion to Catholicism

12 POLITICAL PARTIES  WHIGS -  TORIES

13 JAMES II King Antagonized even his firmest friends Announced that Catholics could hold government posts Stationed 13,000 soldiers outside of London June 1688: son born to James and Mary of Modena…a Catholic

14 The birth of political parties TORIES: those who supported the king… WHIGS: those who opposed James… THE TWO PARTY POLITICAL SYSTEM IN BOTH THE U.S. AND BRITAIN HAS ITS ROOTS IN THIS CONFLICT

15 GLORIOUS REVOLUTION OF 1688 English Protestants terrified at the idea of a Catholic king English Protestants terrified at the idea of a Catholic king James had two Protestant daughters from his 1 st marriage James had two Protestant daughters from his 1 st marriage Whigs and Tories invited the eldest, Mary, and her husband William of Orange to overthrow James II Whigs and Tories invited the eldest, Mary, and her husband William of Orange to overthrow James II

16 WILLIAM AND MARY Landed in England in November 1688 James’ troops deserted James and joined William James fled to France 1689: Parliament asked William and Mary to rule as joint sovereigns

17 WHO HAD THE POWER?? Parliament Parliament William and Mary agreed to “govern the people of England…according to the statutes of Parliament agreed on and the laws and customs of the same.” William and Mary agreed to “govern the people of England…according to the statutes of Parliament agreed on and the laws and customs of the same.” John Locke John Locke wrote to justify the Glorious Revolution wrote to justify the Glorious Revolution Two Treatises on Government Two Treatises on Government a contract between the ruler and the people a contract between the ruler and the people right to life, liberty and property right to life, liberty and property

18 ANNE…the last Stuart born February 1665 to Catholic Duke and Duchess of York…but raised Protestant born February 1665 to Catholic Duke and Duchess of York…but raised Protestant poorly educated and sickly poorly educated and sickly married Prince George of Denmark married Prince George of Denmark 5 children and 12 miscarriages 5 children and 12 miscarriages Act of Settlement 1701 Act of Settlement 1701 Act of Union 1707 Act of Union 1707 supported War of Spanish Succession supported War of Spanish Succession


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