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The Tudors and Parliament

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1 The Tudors and Parliament
Henry and Elizabeth Two prominent members of Tudor dynasty: Henry VIII (3rd Edward, 1st Mary I) 2nd daughter Elizabeth I ruled when absolutism common

2 Henry and Parliament Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England In 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of England

3 Tension Parliament pressured Elizabeth to marry to have heir to throne
Elizabeth refused - marriage would limit her freedom Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed

4 Stuarts Relative of Scotland Tudors James I – divine right of kings
Outsider Heavy spending and wars caused debt Repeatedly asked Parliament for $ and they refused

5 Puritans (purify the church)
Strict Calvinists Demanded that the Church of England be reformed Take power away form church officials James saw this stance as a threat to his power – church leadership supported him James refused to pass most of the Puritans’ requests Did pass new version of the Bible – King James Bible

6 Charles I (Stuart) Son of James Forced to sign the Petition of Right
Placed limits on the king’s power Could not levy taxes without Parliament’s approval Could not imprison anyone w/out legal justification Force citizens to house soldiers Declare martial law (warlike laws) in peacetime Direct challenge to absolute monarchy Parliament refused to give $ Charles I taxed the citizens and forced the bankers to give him $ Dismissed Parliament and ruled w/out consulting them

7 The English Civil War Parliament vs. absolute monarchy
Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for more money “Long Parliament” did not disband for several years 1. Parliament took opportunity to further limit king’s powers Demanded Parliament be called at least every three years Parliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament

8 Continued 2. radical Puritan group in Parliament moved to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church (king’s power connected to the church) 3. Charles tried to arrest Puritan leaders for treason but leaders escaped 4. Charles revealed his plan to take back power 5. Parliament rose up against the king 6. King asked for English peoples’ support

9 Royalists (supported the king)
W/out Parliament’s funding, king relied on contributions to pay army from wealthy nobles

10 Roundheads Supporters of Parliament
included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes Parliament member Oliver Cromwell led Roundhead forces Royalist army outmatched by Cromwell’s troops & king surrendered Cromwell in full control dismissed members of Parliament who disagreed with him called the Rump Parliament

11 Trial and Cromwell Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trial and beheaded House of Commons abolished House of Lords, outlawed monarchy Became commonwealth, government based on common good of all people Cromwell given title Lord Protector closed theaters, limited other entertainment

12 Hobbes Royalist who fled to France during Cromwell’s rule
political science, Leviathan described humans as being naturally selfish, fearful Hobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live Reflected many people were unhappy under Cromwell

13 Restoration Cromwell died & son Richard Cromwell took his place
Lacked leadership capabilities & government collapsed Parliament reconvened, voted to bring back monarchy—event known as the Restoration Parliament invited Charles II son of Charles I to be new king Charles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of England

14 Continued Charles died, brother James crowned king (Catholic)
James not popular; believed in right to rule as absolute monarch James married to a Catholic princess had a Catholic son – outranked Protestant daughters from previous marriage group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary, husband William to become king, queen (both Protestants) transfer became known as the Glorious Revolution

15 Changes in Government English Bill of Rights
Document prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions Constitutional Monarchy, term for monarchy limited by law

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