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Early Stuart England and Civil War. James I Son of Mary Queen of Scots: considered “foreigner” by many (Catholic or Protestant? Succeeded Elizabeth, in.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Stuart England and Civil War. James I Son of Mary Queen of Scots: considered “foreigner” by many (Catholic or Protestant? Succeeded Elizabeth, in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Stuart England and Civil War

2 James I Son of Mary Queen of Scots: considered “foreigner” by many (Catholic or Protestant? Succeeded Elizabeth, in prosperous Renaissance age Believed in divine-right royal absolutism: not Parliamentary check on king’s power Pragmatic: continued Church of England, despite Scottish Presbyterians’ hopes Negotiated peace with Spain to decrease threat of war and lower expenses Authorized “King James Version” of Bible, translated from Greek and Hebrew (still used by some today) Increasingly distrusted by Parliament: his Catholicism and tendency toward absolutism Henry VIII and his wives

3 Charles I Parliament distrusted Charles I: gave him little funding –Parliamentary landowners feared possibility that monarchy would tax at will –Parliamentary Puritans distrusted ruler of Church of England –Feared monarch’s rising sense of divine right absolutism –Parliament concentrated opposition into one location Distrust caused him to rule without Parliament, which alienated aristocracy Charles I with his wife, Henrietta Marie (daughter of Henry IV of France), James Prince of Wales, princess Mary

4 Growing Tension with Charles I Policy of “thorough” streamlined government under his control Modernized navy through new use of existing taxes, like inland use of “ship-money” tax, alienating property owners Supported High Anglicans: alienated Puritans; tried to enforce Anglican Church policies in Scotland “The Bishops’ War:” Puritan Scots rebelled –Charles needed money to defend England: called Parliament, –Parliament refused funds; Charles disbanded it; lost battle Charles consented to new Parliament: “Long Parliament” sat Henry VIII and his wives

5 The Long Parliament & Civil War Parliament dismissed many bishops, ended Star Chamber and High Commission Roundheads: radical Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell; Cavaliers: royalists 1641: Parliament presented Charles with “Grand Remonstrance,” a list of grievances against monarchy’s power 1642: Charles invaded Parliament, raised an army, and civil war began Royalist members left Parliament: “Rump” Parliament, controlled by Oliver Cromwell 1649: Rump Parliament condemned Charles I to death, and executed him

6 Cromwell and The Commonwealth England declared a “Commonwealth” republic, led by Oliver Cromwell –Religious toleration, except for atheists, Catholics, and Unitarians –Execution of Stuart king stung Scotland, requiring force to subdue Scotland –Massacres swept over Ireland, with Catholic women and children butchered –Protestants were installed as landlords over Irish Catholic peasantry 1653: Cromwell abolished Rump Parliament, became Lord Protector with military rule –Protectorate operated under written constitution –Joined England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland equally under one government 1658: Death of Cromwell 1660: Monarchy restored: Charles II


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