Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I & ITS AFTERMATH ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1 WORLD WAR I & ITS AFTERMATH (1914 - 1918) CHAPTER 16WORLD WAR I & ITS AFTERMATH( )
2 THINGS TO CONSIDER… What is the 1 thing you should know about the war? CasualtiesWorld War 1 FirstsInteresting FactsWhat is the legacy of the war?
3 An average of 6,000 soldiers died per day during the war An average of 6,000 soldiers died per day during the war. The average soldier during the war was in their twenties. How would the deaths of 6,000 soldiers between per day affect American society in 2014? -- be specific and think of things like education, economics, women, minorities….
4 16.1 – ROOTS OF THE WAR Emergence of Germany in the late 1800s 1871 – Prussia proclaimed the birth of the German EmpireGermany defeated France and forced it to give Alsace-LorraineAlliances were signed as nations sought to protect themselves- Germany, Italy, and Austria- Hungary formed the Triple Alliance- This scared France & Russia so they signed the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894
5 16.1 – ROOTS OF THE WAR cont.Emergence of militarism – aggressive build up of armed forces to intimidate and threaten other nations (domino effect)Arms race between Germany and GB by the early 1900s, leads GB to join the Triple Entente with Russia and FranceEmergence of nationalism – intense pride in one’s homeland- leads to strong sense of self-determination (right to have your own gov’t)
6 Archduke Franz Ferdinand 16.1 – ROOTS OF THE WAR cont.Assassination of Franz FerdinandJune, 1914 – heir to Austro-Hungarian Empire killed by a Serbian nationalist (Gavrilo Princip)a result of Imperialism – many groups in Southeastern Europe wanted independence from empires such as the Ottoman or Austria-HungaryThis triggers the alliances to take effect (Austria-Hungary asked Germany to back it up if it attacked Serbia, Serbia looked to Russia for help…..)July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia mobilized its troops to support SerbiaAugust 1 – Germany declared war on RussiaAugust 3 – Germany declared war on FranceAugust 4 - Germany invaded neutral Belgium so GB entered the warArchduke Franz Ferdinand
7 M.A.I.N. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR 1 Militarism – nations built up their militaries to ensure their own security/powerAlliances – agreements between countries meant that one event could pull many countries into a conflictImperialism – European nations competed to create empires, increasing tension between them but also creating resentment from those being ruled in those areas (ex. Slavs in Austria-Hungary)Nationalism – as countries competed they became more and more intense in their pride
8 M.A.I.N. POSTER Title – Causes of World War I Militarism – define it, give one specific example, an image to represent itAlliances – define it, describe the triple alliance and triple entente, an image to represent themImperialism/Nationalism – define both, describe the situation in the Balkans (Serbia, Bosnia, AH, Ferdinand’s assassination…), an image to represent it
9 16.1 – THE COMBATANTS CENTRAL POWERS ALLIED POWERS Germany Austria-HungaryBulgariaOttoman EmpireFranceGreat BritainRussiaItaly (joins in 1915)
10 EARLY FIGHTINGGermany attacked France but went through neutral Belgium to do itRussia invaded Germany from the east, forcing Germany to send some troops eastBattle of the Marne (Sept. 1914) – halts the German advance in FranceA stalemate ensued as both sides settled into hundreds of miles of trenchesRussia had 2 million casualties in 1915 alone (what were they fighting for reading? - Strachan)
12 AMERICA DECLARES WARPresident Wilson kept the U.S. out of the war and argued for neutralityDifferent groups emerged on either side of the neutrality debate
13 NEUTRALITY DEBATE PREPAREDNESS PEACE PRO-WAR Wanted to stay out of the war but also wanted the U.S. to prepare just in caseWanted to stay out of the war and keep the U.S. from building up its military- Jane AddamsWere very pro-British and thought the U.S. needed to help in order to maintain an int’l balance of powermost of Wilson’s cabinetBusiness leaders (a lot of loans to the British)
14 MOVING TOWARDS WARTo combat the British blockade the Germans began unrestricted submarine warfareU-boatsMay 17, 1915 – Germans sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship with AmericansTo keep the U.S. out of the war Germany developed the Sussex Pledge
15 MOVING TOWARDS WARZimmerman Telegram – In 1917 the Germans sent a memo to MexicoIf Mexico became Germany’s ally, Germany would help Mexico regain lands lost to the U.S. (NM ,AZ, TX)The British intercepted it and gave it to American newspapersAmericans were furious with Germany
16 U.S. DECLARES WARGermany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917(why did they do this? – Kennedy p.5)April 2, 1917 – Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany(Senator punches protestor – Kennedy p.15)This was a complete reversal of Wilson’s campaign to win the election of 1916 (do you have a problem with that? Why or why not?)“The world must be made safe for democracy” - W.W. on April 2, 1917
17 16. 2 – THE HOMEFRONT (see powerpoint on Mr 16.2 – THE HOMEFRONT (see powerpoint on Mr. Oswald’s website for the rest of the notes for 16.2)When the U.S. entered the war in April of 1917 Progressives were running the gov’tPs applied ideas of planning and scientific management to organize the war effort
18 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES War Industries Board (WIB) Coordinated the production of wartime materialsDetermined what was to be made, gave out resources, ordered building of new factories…Bernard Baruch
19 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES FOOD ADMINISTRATION Responsible for increasing food production and decreasing civilian consumptionEncouraged people to grow “victory gardens”, Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays…Herbert Hoover
20 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES FUEL ADMINISTRATION Managed use of coal and oilShortened work week for some factories, introduced daylight savings time, Heatless MondaysHarry Garfield
21 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD (NWLB) Sought to prevent strikes by mediating labor disputesEncouraged businesses to increase wages, improve working conditions, adopt 8 hour work day, allow unions to organize….In return labor leaders agreed to avoid disrupting production (union membership increased greatly from )Taft
22 16.2 – PAYING FOR THE WAR U.S. spent about $32 billion by war’s end To fund:Raised income tax ratesImposed new taxesBorrowed money through the sale of Liberty and Victory Bonds
28 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY Selective Service Act of 1917All men registered for the draftLotteries determined order in which they were calledAbout 2.8 million were drafted
29 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY VolunteersAbout 2 million volunteeredWhy?Despised GermanyDuty to their nation (calling)c. Fight for democracyd. Great adventure
30 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY African Americans42,000 served as troops overseasFaced discriminationSegregated unitsFought with distinctionHypocritical treatment?
31 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY We must not eat with them, must not shake hands with them, seek to talk to them or to meet with them outside the requirements of military service. We must not commend too highly these troops, especially in front of white Americans” —General John J. Pershing, in a secret communiqué concerning African-American troops sent to the French military stationed“I cannot commend too highly the spirit shown among the colored combat troops, who exhibit fine capacity for quick training and eagerness for the most dangerous work.” —General - John J. Pershing
32 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY WomenFirst war in which woman formally served in the armed forcesNoncombatant positionsMet clerical needsArmy Nursing Corps – 20,000Electricians, pharmacists, chemists, photographers…
33 16.3 – A BLOODY CONFLICTNew technology and strategies led to massive casualtiesFirst “modern” war
34 16.3 – TRENCH WARFAREDug trenches to protect themselves from artilleryMachine gun was used to ward off attacking soldiersNo-Man’s Land – space between; obstacles to prevent crossingResults of TW were horrific, massive casualties on both sidesVideoVideo 2Trench art
35 16.3 – NEW TECHNOLOGYSoldiers needed new technology/weapons to break through the linesNew weapons led to brutal warfare and more casualtiesNew weapons/technologies included:Gas, gas masks, armored tank, airplanes (life expectancy of 2 weeks!), machine guns
40 16.3 – AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR American Expeditionary Force (AEF) arrived in Paris on July 4, 1917Refused to be integrated and fight under British and/or French command93rd Infantry – first to enter combat (African Americans); transferred to French control (why???)
41 16.3 – RUSSIA LEAVES THE WARMarch of 1917 – Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throneBeginning of the Russian RevolutionBolshevik party eventually gained control, established a communist gov’tLed by Vladimir LeninLenin pulled Russia out of the warEffect for Germany?
42 16.3 – END OF THE WARBy November of 1918 the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires surrenderedPoland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia declared independence in OctoberNov. 11, 1918 – Germany signed an armistice (truce) and fighting ended
43 16.3 – END OF THE WARJan – countries meet in France to discuss a treaty that would officially end the war; meeting lasts months14 Points – Wilson’s plan for peace (he brings this to the meeting in Versailles)Focused on eliminating causes for future war and supported self-determinationCalled for the creation of the League of Nations (see page 571)Wilson was popular with many in Europe, but Allied leaders were not in full agreement with his plan; they wanted to punish Germany
44 16.3 – TREATY OF VERSAILLES (p.571) Signed on June 28, 1919 (Big 4 – U.S., France, GB, Italy; why no Russia?)Germany military was reducedNo German troops west of the Rhine RiverBlamed Germany for the cause of the warGermany paid reparationsSome German land returned to other nations (ex. France, Belgium)
45 16.3 – END OF THE WAR WHAT WILSON GOT WHAT HE DIDN’T GET Self-determination in EuropeCreation of the League of NationsDid not address freedom of the seas or free tradeNo independence for colonies in Africa and AsiaFreedom of the seas (which European country was REALLY opposed to this and why?)DID THE HARSH APSECTS OF THE TREATY SET THE STAGE FOR A FUTURE WAR?WHY DID THE U.S. CONGRESS REFUSE TO RATIFY/APPROVE THE TREATY?
46 16.3 – END OF THE WAR END OF EMPIRES NEW COUNTRIES Russian German OttomanAustro-HungarianAustriaCzechoslovakiaEstoniaFinlandHungaryLatviaLithuaniaPolandYugoslavia
49 HOW DO YOU THINK THE WAR IMPACTED AMERICA…. During the War?After the War?
50 16.4– THE WAR’S IMPACTSoldiers returned home to parades and celebrations, but they needed jobsPeople raced to buy rationed goods, led to increases in the cost of livingEconomy slowed as wartime production of goods decreasedWages were increased during the war, companies resisted that after the warUnions had increased in power during the war, this scared business leaders
51 16.4 – STRIKES Seattle General Strike (1919) General strike??? Involved more than 60,000 workers for 5 daysDemanded higher wages, shorter hoursUnion didn’t get them, but it scared business leaders around the country
52 16.4 – STRIKES Boston Police Strike(1919) 75% of police walked off the jobCalvin Coolidge (gov.) had to call in the National Guard to deal with riotsPolice Commissioner fired the strikers and hired a new police forceCoolidge supported the Commissioner (why?); helped him become Rep. presidential candidate in 1920
53 16.4 – RACIAL UNRESTSome blamed African Americans for their own inability to find work25 race riots in the summer of 1919Chicago- Nat’l guard brought in, riots killed 38, over 500 injuredNAACP gained many new members; created momentum for equality, federal laws against things like lynching….
54 16.4 – RED SCAREBy 1919 there was a growing concern about the spread of communism:Communist takeover of RussiaSeparate peace treaty with GermanyImmigrationIncrease in strikes; are the “reds” responsible?; trying to start a revolution in the U.S.?Creation of the Communist International
55 16.4 – PALMER RAIDSSeveral bomb explosions in 1919 within minutes of each other, one at A. Mitchell Palmer’s houseU.S. Attorney GeneralMitchell created an agency, led by J. Edgar Hoover, to pursue communists responsible for the explosionsRaids were carried out against suspected communistsDeportations, arrests, new laws passedViolations of civil rights? (searches without warrants, indefinite jailings…)A. Mitchell Palmer
56 16.4 – ELECTION OF 1920 DEMOCRATS REPUBLICANS P – James M. Cox VP – Franklin RooseveltIgnored Wilson’s advice to focus on the Treaty of Versailles and League of NationsP – Warren HardingVP – Calvin Coolidge“Return to normalcy”- simpler days prior to the Progressive MovementWon in a landslidePeople wanted an end to labor unrest, violence, economic problems, racial tension…..thought Harding could provide these things