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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 16 WORLD WAR I & ITS AFTERMATH (1914 - 1918)"— Presentation transcript:


2 THINGS TO CONSIDER… What is the 1 thing you should know about the war? What is the 1 thing you should know about the war? Casualties World War 1 Firsts Interesting Facts What is the legacy of the war?

3 An average of 6,000 soldiers died per day during the war. The average soldier during the war was in their twenties. How would the deaths of 6,000 soldiers between per day affect American society in 2014? -- be specific and think of things like education, economics, women, minorities….

4 16.1 – ROOTS OF THE WAR 1.Emergence of Germany in the late 1800s a.1871 – Prussia proclaimed the birth of the German Empire b.Germany defeated France and forced it to give Alsace- Lorraine c.Alliances were signed as nations sought to protect themselves - Germany, Italy, and Austria- Hungary formed the Triple Alliance - This scared France & Russia so they signed the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894

5 16.1 – ROOTS OF THE WAR cont. 2.Emergence of militarism – aggressive build up of armed forces to intimidate and threaten other nations (domino effect)militarism -Arms race between Germany and GB by the early 1900s, leads GB to join the Triple Entente with Russia and France 3.Emergence of nationalism – intense pride in one’s homelandnationalism - leads to strong sense of self-determination (right to have your own gov’t)

6 16.1 – ROOTS OF THE WAR cont. 4.Assassination of Franz Ferdinand -June, 1914 – heir to Austro-Hungarian Empire killed by a Serbian nationalist (Gavrilo Princip) - a result of Imperialism – many groups in Southeastern Europe wanted independence from empires such as the Ottoman or Austria- Hungary -This triggers the alliances to take effect (Austria- Hungary asked Germany to back it up if it attacked Serbia, Serbia looked to Russia for help…..) -July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia mobilized its troops to support Serbia -August 1 – Germany declared war on Russia -August 3 – Germany declared war on France -August 4 - Germany invaded neutral Belgium so GB entered the war Archduke Franz Ferdinand

7 M.A.I.N.M.A.I.N. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR 1 Militarism – nations built up their militaries to ensure their own security/power Alliances – agreements between countries meant that one event could pull many countries into a conflict Imperialism – European nations competed to create empires, increasing tension between them but also creating resentment from those being ruled in those areas (ex. Slavs in Austria-Hungary) Nationalism – as countries competed they became more and more intense in their pride

8 M.A.I.N. POSTER Title – Causes of World War I Militarism – define it, give one specific example, an image to represent it Alliances – define it, describe the triple alliance and triple entente, an image to represent them Imperialism/Nationalism – define both, describe the situation in the Balkans (Serbia, Bosnia, AH, Ferdinand’s assassination…), an image to represent it

9 16.1 – THE COMBATANTS CENTRAL POWERS 1.Germany 2.Austria-Hungary 3.Bulgaria 4.Ottoman Empire ALLIED POWERS 1.France 2.Great Britain 3.Russia 4.Italy (joins in 1915)

10 EARLY FIGHTING Germany attacked France but went through neutral Belgium to do it Russia invaded Germany from the east, forcing Germany to send some troops east Battle of the Marne (Sept. 1914) – halts the German advance in France A stalemate ensued as both sides settled into hundreds of miles of trenches – Russia had 2 million casualties in 1915 alone (what were they fighting for reading? - Strachan)


12 AMERICA DECLARES WAR President Wilson kept the U.S. out of the war and argued for neutrality Different groups emerged on either side of the neutrality debate

13 NEUTRALITY DEBATE PREPAREDNESSPEACEPRO-WAR Wanted to stay out of the war but also wanted the U.S. to prepare just in case Wanted to stay out of the war and keep the U.S. from building up its military - Jane Addams Were very pro-British and thought the U.S. needed to help in order to maintain an int’l balance of power -most of Wilson’s cabinet -Business leaders (a lot of loans to the British)

14 MOVING TOWARDS WAR To combat the British blockade the Germans began unrestricted submarine warfare – U-boats May 17, 1915 – Germans sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship with Americans To keep the U.S. out of the war Germany developed the Sussex Pledge

15 MOVING TOWARDS WAR Zimmerman Telegram – In 1917 the Germans sent a memo to Mexico – If Mexico became Germany’s ally, Germany would help Mexico regain lands lost to the U.S. (NM,AZ, TX) – The British intercepted it and gave it to American newspapers – Americans were furious with Germany

16 U.S. DECLARES WAR Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 (why did they do this? – Kennedy p.5) April 2, 1917 – Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany (Senator punches protestor – Kennedy p.15) – This was a complete reversal of Wilson’s campaign to win the election of 1916 (do you have a problem with that? Why or why not?) “The world must be made safe for democracy” - W.W. on April 2, 1917

17 16.2 – THE HOMEFRONT 16.2 – THE HOMEFRONT (see powerpoint on Mr. Oswald’s website for the rest of the notes for 16.2) When the U.S. entered the war in April of 1917 Progressives were running the gov’t Ps applied ideas of planning and scientific management to organize the war effort

18 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES War Industries Board (WIB) – Coordinated the production of wartime materials – Determined what was to be made, gave out resources, ordered building of new factories… Bernard Baruch

19 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES FOOD ADMINISTRATION – Responsible for increasing food production and decreasing civilian consumption – Encouraged people to grow “victory gardens”, Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays… Herbert Hoover

20 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES FUEL ADMINISTRATION – Managed use of coal and oil – Shortened work week for some factories, introduced daylight savings time, Heatless Mondays Harry Garfield

21 16.2 – WARTIME AGENCIES NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD (NWLB) – Sought to prevent strikes by mediating labor disputes – Encouraged businesses to increase wages, improve working conditions, adopt 8 hour work day, allow unions to organize…. – In return labor leaders agreed to avoid disrupting production (union membership increased greatly from ) Taft

22 16.2 – PAYING FOR THE WAR U.S. spent about $32 billion by war’s end To fund: – Raised income tax rates – Imposed new taxes – Borrowed money through the sale of Liberty and Victory Bonds






28 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY Selective Service Act of 1917 – All men registered for the draft – Lotteries determined order in which they were called – About 2.8 million were drafted

29 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY Volunteers – About 2 million volunteered – Why? a.Despised Germany b.Duty to their nation (calling) c. Fight for democracy d. Great adventure

30 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY African Americans – 42,000 served as troops overseas – Faced discrimination – Segregated units – Fought with distinction – Hypocritical treatment?

31 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY We must not eat with them, must not shake hands with them, seek to talk to them or to meet with them outside the requirements of military service. We must not commend too highly these troops, especially in front of white Americans” —General John J. Pershing, in a secret communiqué concerning African-American troops sent to the French military stationed “I cannot commend too highly the spirit shown among the colored combat troops, who exhibit fine capacity for quick training and eagerness for the most dangerous work.” —General - John J. Pershing

32 16.2 – BUILDING THE MILITARY Women – First war in which woman formally served in the armed forces – Noncombatant positions – Met clerical needs – Army Nursing Corps – 20,000 – Electricians, pharmacists, chemists, photographers…

33 16.3 – A BLOODY CONFLICT New technology and strategies led to massive casualties First “modern” war

34 16.3 – TRENCH WARFARE Dug trenches to protect themselves from artillery Machine gun was used to ward off attacking soldiers No-Man’s Land – space between; obstacles to prevent crossing No-Man’s Land Results of TW were horrific, massive casualties on both sides Video Video 2 Trench art

35 16.3 – NEW TECHNOLOGY Soldiers needed new technology/weapons to break through the lines technology/weapons New weapons led to brutal warfare and more casualties New weapons/technologies included: – Gas, gas masks, armored tank, airplanes (life expectancy of 2 weeks!), machine guns

36 16.3 – CASUALTIES

37 16.3 – AMERICA ARRIVES American troops were nicknamed “doughboys” Entry of American troops boosted the morale of the Allied forces and demoralized the Germans John Pershing

38 16.3 – AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR America used convoys to get ships across the Atlantic – Greatly reduced the loss of ships and lives


40 16.3 – AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR American Expeditionary Force (AEF) arrived in Paris on July 4, 1917 Refused to be integrated and fight under British and/or French command 93 rd Infantry – first to enter combat (African Americans); transferred to French control (why???)

41 16.3 – RUSSIA LEAVES THE WAR March of 1917 – Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne – Beginning of the Russian Revolution Beginning of the Russian Revolution Bolshevik party eventually gained control, established a communist gov’t – Led by Vladimir Lenin – Lenin pulled Russia out of the war – Effect for Germany?

42 16.3 – END OF THE WAR By November of 1918 the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires surrendered – Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia declared independence in October Nov. 11, 1918 – Germany signed an armistice (truce) and fighting ended

43 16.3 – END OF THE WAR Jan – countries meet in France to discuss a treaty that would officially end the war; meeting lasts months 14 Points – Wilson’s plan for peace (he brings this to the meeting in Versailles) – Focused on eliminating causes for future war and supported self- determination – Called for the creation of the League of Nations (see page 571) – Wilson was popular with many in Europe, but Allied leaders were not in full agreement with his plan; they wanted to punish Germany

44 16.3 – TREATY OF VERSAILLES (p.571) Signed on June 28, 1919 (Big 4 – U.S., France, GB, Italy; why no Russia?) – Germany military was reduced – No German troops west of the Rhine River – Blamed Germany for the cause of the war – Germany paid reparations – Some German land returned to other nations (ex. France, Belgium)

45 16.3 – END OF THE WAR WHAT WILSON GOT Self-determination in Europe Creation of the League of Nations WHAT HE DIDN’T GET Did not address freedom of the seas or free trade No independence for colonies in Africa and Asia Freedom of the seas (which European country was REALLY opposed to this and why?) DID THE HARSH APSECTS OF THE TREATY SET THE STAGE FOR A FUTURE WAR? WHY DID THE U.S. CONGRESS REFUSE TO RATIFY/APPROVE THE TREATY?

46 16.3 – END OF THE WAR END OF EMPIRES Russian German Ottoman Austro-Hungarian NEW COUNTRIES Austria Czechoslovakia Estonia Finland Hungary Latvia Lithuania Poland Yugoslavia



49 HOW DO YOU THINK THE WAR IMPACTED AMERICA…. During the War?After the War?

50 16.4– THE WAR’S IMPACT Soldiers returned home to parades and celebrations, but they needed jobs People raced to buy rationed goods, led to increases in the cost of living Economy slowed as wartime production of goods decreased Wages were increased during the war, companies resisted that after the war Unions had increased in power during the war, this scared business leaders

51 16.4 – STRIKES Seattle General Strike (1919) – General strike??? – Involved more than 60,000 workers for 5 days – Demanded higher wages, shorter hours – Union didn’t get them, but it scared business leaders around the country

52 16.4 – STRIKES Boston Police Strike(1919) – 75% of police walked off the job – Calvin Coolidge (gov.) had to call in the National Guard to deal with riots – Police Commissioner fired the strikers and hired a new police force – Coolidge supported the Commissioner (why?); helped him become Rep. presidential candidate in 1920

53 16.4 – RACIAL UNREST Some blamed African Americans for their own inability to find work 25 race riots in the summer of 1919 Chicago- Nat’l guard brought in, riots killed 38, over 500 injured NAACP gained many new members; created momentum for equality, federal laws against things like lynching….

54 16.4 – RED SCARE By 1919 there was a growing concern about the spread of communism: – Communist takeover of Russia – Separate peace treaty with Germany – Immigration – Increase in strikes; are the “reds” responsible?; trying to start a revolution in the U.S.? – Creation of the Communist International

55 16.4 – PALMER RAIDS Several bomb explosions in 1919 within minutes of each other, one at A. Mitchell Palmer’s house – U.S. Attorney General Mitchell created an agency, led by J. Edgar Hoover, to pursue communists responsible for the explosions Raids were carried out against suspected communists – Deportations, arrests, new laws passed – Violations of civil rights? (searches without warrants, indefinite jailings…) A. Mitchell Palmer

56 16.4 – ELECTION OF 1920 DEMOCRATS P – James M. Cox VP – Franklin Roosevelt Ignored Wilson’s advice to focus on the Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations REPUBLICANS P – Warren Harding VP – Calvin Coolidge “Return to normalcy”- simpler days prior to the Progressive Movement Won in a landslide People wanted an end to labor unrest, violence, economic problems, racial tension…..thought Harding could provide these things

57 Warren G. Harding

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