2Who was Involved? Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary Allies: France, Serbia, Great Britain, and US (later).
3War in the WestStalemate along the Western Front – border between France and GermanyStuck in trench warfareSchlieffen Plan – Germany’s plan to attack and defeat Russia first, then attack France.Goal was to avoid fighting a war on two fronts.
5Africa and AsiaAllied forces attack German colonies in Africa and Asia.British and French recruit troops and workers from their colonies in Africa and Asia.Volunteers hoped to service would lead to independence of their country.
6Germany and the USUnrestricted warfare – German submarines would sink any ship without warning in British waters.Goal: to stop war related supplies from reach Britain.Results in the sinking of several American shipsSinking of the Lusitania – 128 Americans killed.
8Zimmerman NoteGermany offers to help Mexico “reconquer” land it lost to the US if Mexico becomes allies with Germany.Intercepted by the USPushed the US to declare war on GermanyUS had more economic ties with Great BritainAlso share common ancestor, institutions, and language
9Government’s Role in the War Became a total war – countries devoted all their resources to the war effort.Government take control of the economymake sure war-related goods were made.Use ration system – people allowed to buy small amounts of goods in short supply.Promotion of Propaganda – one-sided information designed to persuade and maintain support for the war.
10Role of Women Replaced men in factories, offices, and shops. Built tanks and munitions, plowed fields, and served as nurses.Helped to keep soldiers supplies with food, clothing, and weaponsShowed women were capable of filling men’s jobs.
11Russia Withdraws from the War 1917- Civil unrest in Russia forces czar to step down from throneCommunists soon take control of Russia’s governmentRussia signs treaty with Germany in March 1918, pulls out of warGermany able to move most forces to Western Front
12End of WWI Second Battle of the Marne – defeat Germany American troops help stop the German advance and lead counterattackRebellion in Austria-Hungary and Germanyarmistice— end of fighting—signed in November 1918
13Legacy of the War 8.5 million soldiers dead, 21 million wounded devastates European economies, drains national treasuriesDestruction of land and cities.Survivors suffer disillusionment and despair
15Wilson’s plan for Peace Wilson proposes Fourteen Points—outline for lasting world peaceCalls for free trade, end to secret alliances, military buildupsPromotes self-determination—right of people to govern own nationEnvisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputes
16Treaty of VersaillesCreates League of Nations—international organization to keep peaceGermans blamed for warforces Germany to pay damages to nationsGermany loses all of its colonies.New nations created from land lost by Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
19Results of the Treaty of Versailles Germans angry after taking blame for warMany Americans oppose League of NationsWant peace by staying out of European affairs.Some former colonies express anger over not winning independenceFought in the war to prove they should be independent
20Review What caused the US to get involved in WWI? What were three effects of the war?What were three effects of the Treaty of Versailles?