Presentation on theme: "Click Here to get started"— Presentation transcript:
1 Click Here to get started World War IClick Here to get started
2 Causes of World War IMilitarism – European countries tried to build large armies and navies to protect their colonies’ European countries tried to use their armies to solve problems between them and other countries instead of talking about the problems. Germany had the biggest and most powerful army.Alliance System –Triple Entente (Allies) – Britain, France, RussiaTriple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman EmpireThe Russians wanted to protect the Slavic people living in the Balkans – Serbs, Croats, Slavs
3 Causes of World War INationalism – pride in your country; People who lived in the Balkans – Serbs, Croats, Slavs—were ruled by Austria-Hungary, and they wanted to be freeImperialism – European countries competed for land in Africa an AsiaAssassinated – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
4 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian king was assassinated by a Serbian man who wanted Serbia to be independentAustria-Hungary declared war on SerbiaRussia declared war on Austria-Hungary
5 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Because of the alliance system, the countries in the Triple Entente (Allied Powers) went to war with the countries of the Triple Alliance (Central Powers)By September 1914 most of Europe is at warGerman, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire against Britain, France, and Russia
6 Terms to KnowNeutralilty – not taking sides on an issue, staying out of itSocialists – people who believe the government should own and control major industries in a countryPacifists -- people who do not believe in war
7 American Neutrality Many Americans said the U.S. should not go to war Socialists and Pacifists said the U.S. should not be involved in European warsMany Americans had families living in Germany. Other Americans had family in Britain
8 American NeutralityThe U.S. and Britain had a lot of trade with each other.U.S. President Wilson said the U.S. would be neutral
9 Other Terms to KnowBlockade – When one country (Germany)puts its ships around another country’s(Britain) ports, so that country (Britain) cannot get ships with food, weapons, and other suppliesKaiser Wilhelm – king of Germany during World War I
10 Neutrality and Blockades Both Germany and Britain were trying to use blockades on each otherGermany had submarines.The Germans used the submarines on American ships going to BritainU.S. President Wilson wanted American ships and Americans on British ships to be safe from German submarines
11 Other Problems at SeaThe British ship Arabic was sunk by Germany in March 19152 Americans diedPresident Wilson asked the Kaiser to promise not to sink any more passenger shipsGermany agreed
12 Other Problems at SeaMarch 1916French ship Sussex was sunk by German submarinesSome Americans were killedPresident Wilson told the Kaiser the U.S. would have no more relations with Germany if Germany didn’t stop sinking passenger ships
13 Other Problems at SeaBritish ship Lusitania sunk by Germans on May 1915128 Americans on the Lusitania diedPresident Wilson told the German Kaiser (leader) the U.S. would go to war with Germany if Germany sank U.S. ships
14 American PoliticsDuring the war, politicians disagreed over the U.S. and the war.Former President Teddy Roosevelt said the U.S. should enter the warOther politicians and leaders said the U.S. should not enter the war
15 American Politics Election of 1916 Wilson’s campaign said “He kept us out of war.” Wilson did not want to go to warThe election was close, but Wilson won
16 Even More Terms Unrestricted – no rules; no limits Overthrown – removed from being a leader
17 Closer to War1917 Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare; Germany was sinking shipsGermany knew this would bring the U.S. into the war, but Germany thought Germany could win the war before the U.S. entered.
18 Closer to War Zimmerman letter March 1917 German Foreign Minister sent a letter to Mexico.The letter asked Mexico to help Germany in the war. If Mexico helped Germany, then Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, the lands Mexico lost to the U.S. during the Mexican American War.The U.S. got the letter. Americans were very angry.
19 Closer to WarRussiaThe czar (king) of Russia is overthrown in a rebellion.Russia got out of the war, so Germany did not have to send soldiers east to fight Russia. Now Germany and the Central Powers sent all of their soldiers west to fight against England and France.President Wilson said now the US would be fighting for democracy and against kings of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
20 WAR! (The US enters World War I) April 17, 1917 the US declared war on GermanyPresident Wilson said “the world must be safe for democracy.”
21 The US enters …. Why? The sinking of US merchant ships by Germany The Zimmerman note (Germany asked Mexico to invade the US)
22 The US enters …. Why? Economics The US was selling a lot of supplies to Great Britain and FranceLoans!The Great Britain and France had borrowed a lot of money from US banksIf the Allies (Great Britain and France) lost the war, US banks would not get their money back.
23 Preparing for WarThe US sent a lot of supplies while American troops trained.The US government raised money to pay for the war. The government increased taxes and borrowed money.
24 Preparing for War The Army When the war started, the US army had 200,000 men. Many more men were needed to fight.Many men volunteered, but it wasn’t enough.DraftThe Selective Service Act (law) required healthy young men to sign up for the draftThe men were chosen by lottery (lotería, loterie)2.8 million men are chosen
25 Preparing for War400,000 Black Americans served in the army. Most did not fight, but worked other jobs.
26 Role of Regular Americans The government created the War Industry Board to help factories focus on making war suppliesThe War Industry Board had a good relationship with Unions because it needed everyone working.Workers wages increased
27 Role of Regular Americans Women began working in factoriesImmigrants came from Mexico to work in factories and on farmsThe Great MigrationBlacks moved North to take jobs in factories.This was called the Great Migration
28 Role of Regular Americans ConservationPeople tried to conserve food – Meatless Mondays, Wheatless WednesdaysSave coal
29 American Contributions Built ships to replace the ships sunk by the German U-boatsEnergy & excitement – The British and French troops were tired after 3/12 years of terrible war. American troops are ready to fight.American troops are led by General John J. Pershing
30 Summer/Fall 1918 Battles at Chateau-Thiery & Belleau Wood Late summer/early fallPushing German forces back to the border of GermanyNovember 3 Austria-Hungary surrendersNovember 9th Kaiser abdicates the throne (gives up his power/stops being the ruler)November 11 – Armistice signed (Armistice – cease fire
31 Making Peace: The Treaty of Versailles Wilson developed his Fourteen Points for PeaceNo secret treatiesFreedom of the seas (no sub warfare)Arms reduction (Countries should not build ships for war/create new weapons)Self-determination – ethnic and national groups should have their own countries and build their own governments
32 Making Peace: The Treaty of Versailles Fourteenth point called to establish a League of NationsThe League of Nations would have representatives from each country and would try to solve international problems and keep peace
33 Making Peace: The Treaty of Versailles Big Four meet at Versailles to write the peace treatyClemenceau from FranceLloyd-George from Great BritainOrlando from ItalyWilson from the US
34 Meeting (Writing the Peace treaty) Problems with the meetingRussia was not includedGermany and Austria-Hungary were not includedThe Big Four made all the decisionsGreat Britain and France want Germany to pay for the war.The Big Four did not adopt the Fourteen Points except the League of Nations
35 The TreatySigned June 1919New Nations were created: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, LithuaniaThe Ottoman Empire was gone and the land divided upGreat Britain and France controlled the land of the old Ottoman EmpireExample: Palestine was created and controlled by Great Britain
36 The TreatyGermanyGermany could not have an armyGermany had to return the land of Alsace Lorrain to FranceGermany had to pay $33 billion to France and Great BritainWar-guilt clause – The treaty said the war was Germany’s fault
37 Problems with the Treaty of Versailles War-guilt clause – Germany was angry that they were blamed and punished for the warGermany lost colonies and other land. German people were angry and resentful about this.Germany could not pay the $33 billion in reparationsRussia (SU) lost territory.