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World War I Causes of World War I Militarism – European countries tried to build large armies and navies to protect their colonies’ European countries.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I Causes of World War I Militarism – European countries tried to build large armies and navies to protect their colonies’ European countries."— Presentation transcript:

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2 World War I

3 Causes of World War I Militarism – European countries tried to build large armies and navies to protect their colonies’ European countries tried to use their armies to solve problems between them and other countries instead of talking about the problems. Germany had the biggest and most powerful army. Militarism – European countries tried to build large armies and navies to protect their colonies’ European countries tried to use their armies to solve problems between them and other countries instead of talking about the problems. Germany had the biggest and most powerful army. Alliance System – Alliance System – Triple Entente (Allies) – Britain, France, Russia Triple Entente (Allies) – Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire Triple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire The Russians wanted to protect the Slavic people living in the Balkans – Serbs, Croats, Slavs The Russians wanted to protect the Slavic people living in the Balkans – Serbs, Croats, Slavs

4 Causes of World War I Nationalism – pride in your country; People who lived in the Balkans – Serbs, Croats, Slavs—were ruled by Austria- Hungary, and they wanted to be free Nationalism – pride in your country; People who lived in the Balkans – Serbs, Croats, Slavs—were ruled by Austria- Hungary, and they wanted to be free Imperialism – European countries competed for land in Africa an Asia Imperialism – European countries competed for land in Africa an Asia Assassinated – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

5 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian king was assassinated by a Serbian man who wanted Serbia to be independent Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian king was assassinated by a Serbian man who wanted Serbia to be independent Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary

6 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Because of the alliance system, the countries in the Triple Entente (Allied Powers) went to war with the countries of the Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Because of the alliance system, the countries in the Triple Entente (Allied Powers) went to war with the countries of the Triple Alliance (Central Powers) By September 1914 most of Europe is at war By September 1914 most of Europe is at war German, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire against Britain, France, and Russia German, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire against Britain, France, and Russia

7 Terms to Know Neutralilty – not taking sides on an issue, staying out of it Neutralilty – not taking sides on an issue, staying out of it Socialists – people who believe the government should own and control major industries in a country Socialists – people who believe the government should own and control major industries in a country Pacifists -- people who do not believe in war Pacifists -- people who do not believe in war

8 American Neutrality Many Americans said the U.S. should not go to war Many Americans said the U.S. should not go to war Socialists and Pacifists said the U.S. should not be involved in European wars Socialists and Pacifists said the U.S. should not be involved in European wars Many Americans had families living in Germany. Other Americans had family in Britain Many Americans had families living in Germany. Other Americans had family in Britain

9 American Neutrality The U.S. and Britain had a lot of trade with each other. The U.S. and Britain had a lot of trade with each other. U.S. President Wilson said the U.S. would be neutral U.S. President Wilson said the U.S. would be neutral

10 Other Terms to Know Blockade – When one country (Germany)puts its ships around another country’s(Britain) ports, so that country (Britain) cannot get ships with food, weapons, and other supplies Blockade – When one country (Germany)puts its ships around another country’s(Britain) ports, so that country (Britain) cannot get ships with food, weapons, and other supplies Kaiser Wilhelm – king of Germany during World War I Kaiser Wilhelm – king of Germany during World War I

11 Neutrality and Blockades Both Germany and Britain were trying to use blockades on each other Both Germany and Britain were trying to use blockades on each other Germany had submarines. Germany had submarines. The Germans used the submarines on American ships going to Britain The Germans used the submarines on American ships going to Britain U.S. President Wilson wanted American ships and Americans on British ships to be safe from German submarines U.S. President Wilson wanted American ships and Americans on British ships to be safe from German submarines

12 Other Problems at Sea The British ship Arabic was sunk by Germany in March 1915 The British ship Arabic was sunk by Germany in March Americans died 2 Americans died President Wilson asked the Kaiser to promise not to sink any more passenger ships President Wilson asked the Kaiser to promise not to sink any more passenger ships Germany agreed Germany agreed

13 Other Problems at Sea March 1916French ship Sussex was sunk by German submarines March 1916French ship Sussex was sunk by German submarines Some Americans were killed Some Americans were killed President Wilson told the Kaiser the U.S. would have no more relations with Germany if Germany didn’t stop sinking passenger ships President Wilson told the Kaiser the U.S. would have no more relations with Germany if Germany didn’t stop sinking passenger ships

14 Other Problems at Sea British ship Lusitania sunk by Germans on May 1915 British ship Lusitania sunk by Germans on May Americans on the Lusitania died 128 Americans on the Lusitania died President Wilson told the German Kaiser (leader) the U.S. would go to war with Germany if Germany sank U.S. ships President Wilson told the German Kaiser (leader) the U.S. would go to war with Germany if Germany sank U.S. ships

15 American Politics During the war, politicians disagreed over the U.S. and the war. During the war, politicians disagreed over the U.S. and the war. Former President Teddy Roosevelt said the U.S. should enter the war Former President Teddy Roosevelt said the U.S. should enter the war Other politicians and leaders said the U.S. should not enter the war Other politicians and leaders said the U.S. should not enter the war

16 American Politics Election of 1916 Election of 1916 Wilson’s campaign said “He kept us out of war.” Wilson did not want to go to war Wilson’s campaign said “He kept us out of war.” Wilson did not want to go to war The election was close, but Wilson won The election was close, but Wilson won

17 Even More Terms Unrestricted – no rules; no limits Unrestricted – no rules; no limits Overthrown – removed from being a leader Overthrown – removed from being a leader

18 Closer to War 1917 Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare; Germany was sinking ships 1917 Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare; Germany was sinking ships Germany knew this would bring the U.S. into the war, but Germany thought Germany could win the war before the U.S. entered. Germany knew this would bring the U.S. into the war, but Germany thought Germany could win the war before the U.S. entered.

19 Closer to War Zimmerman letter Zimmerman letter March 1917 German Foreign Minister sent a letter to Mexico. March 1917 German Foreign Minister sent a letter to Mexico. The letter asked Mexico to help Germany in the war. If Mexico helped Germany, then Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, the lands Mexico lost to the U.S. during the Mexican American War. The letter asked Mexico to help Germany in the war. If Mexico helped Germany, then Mexico would get Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, the lands Mexico lost to the U.S. during the Mexican American War. The U.S. got the letter. Americans were very angry. The U.S. got the letter. Americans were very angry.

20 Closer to War Russia Russia The czar (king) of Russia is overthrown in a rebellion. The czar (king) of Russia is overthrown in a rebellion. Russia got out of the war, so Germany did not have to send soldiers east to fight Russia. Now Germany and the Central Powers sent all of their soldiers west to fight against England and France. Russia got out of the war, so Germany did not have to send soldiers east to fight Russia. Now Germany and the Central Powers sent all of their soldiers west to fight against England and France. President Wilson said now the US would be fighting for democracy and against kings of Germany and Austria-Hungary. President Wilson said now the US would be fighting for democracy and against kings of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

21 WAR! (The US enters World War I) April 17, 1917 the US declared war on Germany April 17, 1917 the US declared war on Germany President Wilson said “the world must be safe for democracy.” President Wilson said “the world must be safe for democracy.”

22 The US enters …. Why? The sinking of US merchant ships by Germany The sinking of US merchant ships by Germany The Zimmerman note (Germany asked Mexico to invade the US) The Zimmerman note (Germany asked Mexico to invade the US)

23 The US enters …. Why? Economics Economics The US was selling a lot of supplies to Great Britain and France The US was selling a lot of supplies to Great Britain and France Loans! Loans! The Great Britain and France had borrowed a lot of money from US banks The Great Britain and France had borrowed a lot of money from US banks If the Allies (Great Britain and France) lost the war, US banks would not get their money back. If the Allies (Great Britain and France) lost the war, US banks would not get their money back.

24 Preparing for War The US sent a lot of supplies while American troops trained. The US sent a lot of supplies while American troops trained. The US government raised money to pay for the war. The government increased taxes and borrowed money. The US government raised money to pay for the war. The government increased taxes and borrowed money.

25 Preparing for War The Army The Army When the war started, the US army had 200,000 men. Many more men were needed to fight. When the war started, the US army had 200,000 men. Many more men were needed to fight. Many men volunteered, but it wasn’t enough. Many men volunteered, but it wasn’t enough. Draft Draft The Selective Service Act (law) required healthy young men to sign up for the draft The Selective Service Act (law) required healthy young men to sign up for the draft The men were chosen by lottery (lotería, loterie) The men were chosen by lottery (lotería, loterie) 2.8 million men are chosen 2.8 million men are chosen

26 Preparing for War 400,000 Black Americans served in the army. Most did not fight, but worked other jobs. 400,000 Black Americans served in the army. Most did not fight, but worked other jobs.

27 Role of Regular Americans The government created the War Industry Board to help factories focus on making war supplies The government created the War Industry Board to help factories focus on making war supplies The War Industry Board had a good relationship with Unions because it needed everyone working. The War Industry Board had a good relationship with Unions because it needed everyone working. Workers wages increased Workers wages increased

28 Role of Regular Americans Women began working in factories Women began working in factories Immigrants came from Mexico to work in factories and on farms Immigrants came from Mexico to work in factories and on farms The Great Migration The Great Migration Blacks moved North to take jobs in factories. Blacks moved North to take jobs in factories. This was called the Great Migration This was called the Great Migration

29 Role of Regular Americans Conservation Conservation People tried to conserve food – Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays People tried to conserve food – Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays Save coal Save coal

30 American Contributions Built ships to replace the ships sunk by the German U-boats Built ships to replace the ships sunk by the German U-boats Energy & excitement – The British and French troops were tired after 3/12 years of terrible war. American troops are ready to fight. Energy & excitement – The British and French troops were tired after 3/12 years of terrible war. American troops are ready to fight. American troops are led by General John J. Pershing American troops are led by General John J. Pershing

31 Summer/Fall 1918 Battles at Chateau-Thiery & Belleau Wood Battles at Chateau-Thiery & Belleau Wood Late summer/early fall Late summer/early fall Pushing German forces back to the border of Germany Pushing German forces back to the border of Germany November 3 Austria-Hungary surrenders November 3 Austria-Hungary surrenders November 9 th Kaiser abdicates the throne (gives up his power/stops being the ruler) November 9 th Kaiser abdicates the throne (gives up his power/stops being the ruler) November 11 – Armistice signed (Armistice – cease fire November 11 – Armistice signed (Armistice – cease fire

32 Making Peace: The Treaty of Versailles Wilson developed his Fourteen Points for Peace Wilson developed his Fourteen Points for Peace No secret treaties No secret treaties Freedom of the seas (no sub warfare) Freedom of the seas (no sub warfare) Arms reduction (Countries should not build ships for war/create new weapons) Arms reduction (Countries should not build ships for war/create new weapons) Self-determination – ethnic and national groups should have their own countries and build their own governments Self-determination – ethnic and national groups should have their own countries and build their own governments

33 Making Peace: The Treaty of Versailles Fourteenth point called to establish a League of Nations Fourteenth point called to establish a League of Nations The League of Nations would have representatives from each country and would try to solve international problems and keep peace The League of Nations would have representatives from each country and would try to solve international problems and keep peace

34 Making Peace: The Treaty of Versailles Big Four meet at Versailles to write the peace treaty Big Four meet at Versailles to write the peace treaty Clemenceau from France Clemenceau from France Lloyd-George from Great Britain Lloyd-George from Great Britain Orlando from Italy Orlando from Italy Wilson from the US Wilson from the US

35 Meeting (Writing the Peace treaty) Problems with the meeting Problems with the meeting Russia was not included Russia was not included Germany and Austria-Hungary were not included Germany and Austria-Hungary were not included The Big Four made all the decisions The Big Four made all the decisions Great Britain and France want Germany to pay for the war. Great Britain and France want Germany to pay for the war. The Big Four did not adopt the Fourteen Points except the League of Nations The Big Four did not adopt the Fourteen Points except the League of Nations

36 The Treaty Signed June 1919 Signed June 1919 New Nations were created: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania New Nations were created: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania The Ottoman Empire was gone and the land divided up The Ottoman Empire was gone and the land divided up Great Britain and France controlled the land of the old Ottoman Empire Great Britain and France controlled the land of the old Ottoman Empire Example: Palestine was created and controlled by Great Britain Example: Palestine was created and controlled by Great Britain

37 The Treaty Germany Germany Germany could not have an army Germany could not have an army Germany had to return the land of Alsace Lorrain to France Germany had to return the land of Alsace Lorrain to France Germany had to pay $33 billion to France and Great Britain Germany had to pay $33 billion to France and Great Britain War-guilt clause – The treaty said the war was Germany’s fault War-guilt clause – The treaty said the war was Germany’s fault

38 Problems with the Treaty of Versailles War-guilt clause – Germany was angry that they were blamed and punished for the war War-guilt clause – Germany was angry that they were blamed and punished for the war Germany lost colonies and other land. German people were angry and resentful about this. Germany lost colonies and other land. German people were angry and resentful about this. Germany could not pay the $33 billion in reparations Germany could not pay the $33 billion in reparations Russia (SU) lost territory. Russia (SU) lost territory.

39 The End


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