Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Section 1. Alliances In the late 1800s, Germany and France were bitter enemies."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Section 1
Alliances In the late 1800s, Germany and France were bitter enemies.
German Alliance Germany joined Italy and Austria-Hungary in the Triple Alliance. This alliance alarmed Russian leaders because they feared Germany intended to expand eastward into Russia.
French & British Alliance France, Russia, and Great Britain formed the Triple Entente.
Militarism This system of alliances encouraged militarism—the buildup of armed force between Great Britain and Germany.
Imperialism & Nationalism Nationalism is intense pride in one’s homeland. – The main idea behind self- determination is that people who share a national identity should have their own country. Imperialism led European powers to form empires. In Southeastern Europe the (Balkans) Ottoman Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire ruled the Balkans; national groups within these empires began to push for independence. – Example; Serbia granted independence.
Murder Austria-Hungary took control of the nation of Bosnia to stop the Serbs from uniting with it. – The Serbs were angry. In June 1914, a Bosnian member of a Serbian nationalist group killed the heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne.
Russian Support Russia support the Serbian nationalist group that assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand because the Russians belonged to a similar ethnic group called the Slavs and supported their independence from the Austria- Hungarian Empire.
Start of WWI Several nations became involved. They formed alliances and declared war. The first (initial) countries involved in World War I were Austria; Serbia; Russia; Germany; France Soon Great Britain joined because the German invasion route into France involved invading Belgium and the British guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality. – France France, Russia, Great Britain, and Italy became the Allies.
Start of WWI Germany, Austria- Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria became the Central Powers. Eventually, both sides became locked in a stalemate in France. In Russia, the Germans and Austrians swept across hundreds of miles of land and took thousands of prisoners.
American Response As World War I began, President Wilson declared the United States neutral.
Who did the American support? However, many Americans supported one side or the other. Most Americans favored the Allies. However, many Irish Americans sympathize with Germany and the Central Powers because the Irish had ruled their homeland for centuries. Most of President Wilson’s cabinet supported the Allies, too.
Propaganda The British and Germans worked to win U.S. support by using propaganda or information designed to influence opinion.
Limiting our news Britain also cut the transatlantic telegraph cable from Europe to the United States. This limited the news about the war mainly to British communications. Although many reports were exaggerated, many Americans believed them.
Businesses Supporting the Allies Businesses also supported the Allies because they had ties with businesses in the Allied countries. America's prosperity intertwined with the military fortunes of Britain, France, and Russia because American banks had heavily invested in an Allied victory. If the Allies won, the money would be paid back. If they lost, the money would be, too.
Although most Americans did not want to enter the war, many events drew the United States into it. The British navy had blockaded Germany. They stopped neutral ships to inspect them for contraband, or prohibited materials, headed for Germany or its allies.
In response, Germany respond to Britain's blockade by announcing that it would sink without warning any ships in the waters around Britain. Attacking civilian ships without warning was against international law.
Lusitania In May, the British passenger ship Lusitania, entered the war zone. A German U-boat—or submarine—sank the ship, killing nearly 1,200 people. About 128 were Americans.
Sussex Pledge President Wilson still tried to stay out of the war. However, he did send notes to Germany telling it to stop endangering the lives of civilians in war zones. After a U-boat shot at the French passenger ship Sussex, Wilson warned Germany to stop its submarine warfare or risk war with the United States. Germany did not want the United States to join the Allies and to keep the United States from breaking off diplomatic relations, they signed the Sussex pledge. – In the Sussex Pledge, Germany promised not to sink any merchant ships without warning.
Zimmerman Note In January 1917, a German official named Arthur Zimmermann told the German ambassador to Mexico to ask Mexico to ally itself with Germany in case of war between Germany and the United States. Germany promise to Mexico in return for their support in the war, Mexico would get back the territory it once held in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
Zimmerman Telegram The British intercepted the Zimmermann telegram. It was leaked to American newspapers. Many Americans now believed that war with Germany was necessary.
Last Straw… When Germany again began unrestricted submarine warfare, it was the event that finally drew the United States into the war February 1917, Germany sank six American merchant ships, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. – It did so on April 6, 1917.