2 America Enters The Great War from : United States officially neutral & isolationist (trades with both sides)Woodrow Wilson, U.S. President, reelected in 1916 with campaign slogan: “he kept us out of war”after Lusitania (1915)Germany stopped unrestricted submarine warfare to keep USA out of the Great Warby 1917, Germany had restarted unrestricted submarine warfare because it needed to defeat Great Britain1917: Russia leaves the Allied side (Russian Revolution)January 16th,1917Germany sent Zimmermann Telegram to Mexico saying if Mexico entered war vs. United States, Germany would give Mexico the land it lost in the Mexican-American War ( )Germany would use Mexico for site of invasionGreat Britain decoded Zimmerman Note & sent it to the United States…”Note” published in newspapers, outraging Americans!April 1917:President Wilson went to Congress for declaration of war vs. Germany!The United States entered World War I, with the Allies!
10 The Fighting Ends…Germany knew they could not hold off the United States as well, so they tried to end the War before the U.S. could mobilize & arrivegot within 40 miles of Paris before they were stopped (2nd Battle of the Marne)with American soldiers “doughboys” & supplies, the Allies had the definite advantagein Germany, political, economic & social situations: “serious but not desperate”in Austria-Hungary, situations: “desperate but not serious”Kaiser Wilhelm II deposed & democratic government put in power (Weimar, Germany)Germany asked for the fighting to endthe Allied & Central Powers signed & declared an Armistice on November 11th, 1918 (“on the 11th hour, of the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918”) with the leaders deciding to meet in Paris, for a peace treaty!
14 Paris Peace Conference (1919) “Big Four”Woodrow Wilson (USA), George Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), & Vittorio Orlando (Italy)Germany NOT INVITED!!!Woodrow Wilson: very idealistic14 Points as basis of peace treatyPoint #14: League of Nations to keep world peaceimportance of self-determination where each ethnic group had its own governmentthe other “3” wanted to make Germany pay for the effects of the War!3rd period- stopped here, 12/12/12
16 Treaty of Versailles (1919) Germany takes full responsibility for the Great War (war guilt clause)pays huge reparations to the Allies ($33 billion)demilitarize (or shrink army to no more than 100,000 soldiers with a small navy & no air force)Treaty of Versailles: huge insult to Germany!Germans saw it as unfair…setting the stage for Adolf Hitler & World War IILeague of Nations: only Point of Wilson’s plan adopted into TreatyU.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles…thus never joining League of Nations!Stopped here in 3rd, 5/15/13
21 Aftermath of War map of Europe totally redrawn! old empires disappeared (Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, etc.)new countries created (Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia) OR recreated (Poland)created mandates: territories “helped” by European powers1917 Balfour Declaration: Great Britain favored the creation of Jewish homeland in Palestineproblematic because mostly Arab inhabitants there!human cost of war“Lost Generation” because over 43 million killed, wounded or captured…could not go back to normal lifeFrance, Belgium & Germany: badly damaged during war economically & struggle to recoverleft voids in political power in countriespeople did not trust governments & thus felt disillusioned