Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 Social Structure"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Sociology4/23/2017CHAPTER 4 Social StructureSection 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureSection 2: Types of Social InteractionSection 3: Types of SocietiesSection 4: Groups Within SocietySection 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsChapter 4
2 Identify and describe the two major components of social structure. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureObjectives:Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction.
3 Major Components of Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureMajor Components of Social StructureSocial Structure -the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction, give society its enduring characteristics and make patterns of human interaction predictableStatus – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more rolesRole – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
4 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human InteractionPeople’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another.Statuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in society and how they relate to othersascribed status – assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s controlachieved status – acquired through individuals own direct effortsmaster status – one status tends to out-rank others, plays the greatest role in one’s life and determining social identity
5 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human InteractionRoles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life.reciprocal roles – corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statusesrole expectations – socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
6 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human Interactionrole performance – actual role behavior, does not always match expectationsrole set – the different roles attached to a single statusrole strain – occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single statusrole conflict – occurs between two statuses when trying to fulfill expectations
7 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human InteractionStatuses and their related roles determine the structure of groups in society.social institution – statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
8 Objectives: Identify the most common types of social interaction. Section 2: Types of Social InteractionObjectives:Identify the most common types of social interaction.Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it.
9 Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social InteractionWhen playing a role, must interact with othersInteractions either change or stabilize societyexchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actionsreciprocity – you do something for someone else, they owe you something in returnexchange theory – people are motivated by self-interest in their interactions
10 Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social InteractionCompetition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attainpositive means of motivating people to perform roles society askscan also lead to psychological stress, lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and conflictConflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another personSimmel’s four sources of conflict: war, within group, legal disputes, clashes over ideologypositive effects: reinforces group boundaries, strengthens group loyalty, draw attention away from internal problems, lead to social change
11 Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social InteractionCooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of themAccommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict, a compromise, truce
12 Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt Section 2: Types of Social InteractionInteractions That Stabilize and DisruptCompetition and Conflict – disrupt social stabilityAccommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability
13 Section 3: Types of Societies Objectives:Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems.
14 Types of Societies Section 3: Types of Societies role behavior takes place in groupsgroup – set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identitylargest and most complex groups are societiesSociologists classify societies according to subsistence strategies.subsistence strategies – way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of members
15 Section 3: Types of Societies Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing foodhunting and gathering, pastoral societies, horticultural society, agricultural societyIndustrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methodsleads to urbanizationPostindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services73% of AmericansSmartNotebook Activity
16 Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups. Section 4: Groups Within SocietyObjectives:Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.Identify the purposes that groups fulfill.
17 What is a group? Section 4: Groups Within Society A group has 4 major features:two or more people, interaction among members, shared expectations, common identityThese distinguish a group from an aggregate or social categoryaggregate – people gathered in the same place at the same time, but lack organization or patternssocial category – classifying people according to a shared trait or common status
18 Types of Groups Features of Primary Groups: Section 4: Groups Within SocietyTypes of GroupsFeatures of Primary Groups:Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basisEntire self of the individual is taken into accountRelationships are intimate and face-to-face
19 Types of Groups Features of Secondary Groups: Section 4: Groups Within SocietyTypes of GroupsFeatures of Secondary Groups:Interaction is impersonal and temporary in natureInvolve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s selfCasual and limited in personal involvement
20 Types of Groups Section 4: Groups Within Society Features of Reference Groups:group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adoptFeatures of In-Groups and Out-Groupsin-group – group that a person belongs to and identifies without-group – any group that the person does not belong to or identify with
21 Types of Groups Features of E-communities Section 4: Groups Within SocietyTypes of GroupsFeatures of E-communitiese-community – people interact with one another regularly on the InternetFeatures of Social Networkssocial network – web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people
22 Purposes of Groups Section 4: Groups Within Society Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of othersinstrumental leaders – task orientedexpressive leaders – emotion orientedDefine their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does notSet goals, assign tasks, and make decisionsControl their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long
23 Explain how bureaucracies are structured. Section 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsObjectives:Explain how bureaucracies are structured.Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies.
24 What are Formal Organizations? Section 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsWhat are Formal Organizations?Sociologists use the term formal organization to describe a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals.Most organizations are structured in the form of a bureaucracy.bureaucracy – a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and proceduresBureaucracies were created to rationally organize groups to complete a set of goals
25 Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Weber’s ModelDivision of Laborwork is divided among specialists in various positions, expected to complete specific taskRanking of Authorityclear-cut lines of authority, each is responsible to a supervisor at a higher levelEmployment based on formal qualificationsindividuals are hired based on tests, education, or previous experienceRules and regulationsidentify the responsibilities of each personSpecific lines of promotion and advancementjob security and seniority
26 Effectiveness of Bureaucracies Section 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsEffectiveness of BureaucraciesEfficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewardsProvides stabilityCan lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchiesIn some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably