Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Section 3: Types of Societies Section 4: Groups Within Society Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Objectives:  Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.  Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Major Components of Social Structure  Social Structure -the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction, give society its enduring characteristics and make patterns of human interaction predictable  Status – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more roles  Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another.  Statuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in society and how they relate to others  ascribed status – assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s control  achieved status – acquired through individuals own direct efforts  master status – one status tends to out-rank others, plays the greatest role in one’s life and determining social identity Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Roles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life.  reciprocal roles – corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses  role expectations – socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  role performance – actual role behavior, does not always match expectations  role set – the different roles attached to a single status  role strain – occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status  role conflict – occurs between two statuses when trying to fulfill expectations Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  Statuses and their related roles determine the structure of groups in society.  social institution – statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Objectives:  Identify the most common types of social interaction.  Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it. Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Common Types of Social Interaction  When playing a role, must interact with others  Interactions either change or stabilize society  exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions  reciprocity – you do something for someone else, they owe you something in return  exchange theory – people are motivated by self- interest in their interactions Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Common Types of Social Interaction  Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain  positive means of motivating people to perform roles society asks  can also lead to psychological stress, lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and conflict  Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person  Simmel’s four sources of conflict: war, within group, legal disputes, clashes over ideology  positive effects: reinforces group boundaries, strengthens group loyalty, draw attention away from internal problems, lead to social change Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Common Types of Social Interaction  Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them  Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict, a compromise, truce Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt  Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability  Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Objectives:  Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.  Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems. Section 3: Types of Societies

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Types of Societies  role behavior takes place in groups  group – set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity  largest and most complex groups are societies  Sociologists classify societies according to subsistence strategies.  subsistence strategies – way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of members Section 3: Types of Societies

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Types of Societies  Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food  hunting and gathering, pastoral societies, horticultural society, agricultural society  Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods  leads to urbanization  Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services  73% of Americans  SmartNotebook Activity Section 3: Types of Societies

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Objectives:  Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.  Identify the purposes that groups fulfill. Section 4: Groups Within Society

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY What is a group?  A group has 4 major features:  two or more people, interaction among members, shared expectations, common identity  These distinguish a group from an aggregate or social category  aggregate – people gathered in the same place at the same time, but lack organization or patterns  social category – classifying people according to a shared trait or common status Section 4: Groups Within Society

18 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Types of Groups  Features of Primary Groups:  Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis  Entire self of the individual is taken into account  Relationships are intimate and face-to- face Section 4: Groups Within Society

19 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Types of Groups  Features of Secondary Groups:  Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self  Casual and limited in personal involvement Section 4: Groups Within Society

20 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Types of Groups  Features of Reference Groups:  group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt  Features of In-Groups and Out-Groups  in-group – group that a person belongs to and identifies with  out-group – any group that the person does not belong to or identify with Section 4: Groups Within Society

21 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Types of Groups  Features of E-communities  e-community – people interact with one another regularly on the Internet  Features of Social Networks  social network – web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other people Section 4: Groups Within Society

22 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Purposes of Groups  Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others  instrumental leaders – task oriented  expressive leaders – emotion oriented  Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not  Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions  Control their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long Section 4: Groups Within Society

23 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Objectives:  Explain how bureaucracies are structured.  Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

24 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY What are Formal Organizations?  Sociologists use the term formal organization to describe a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals.  Most organizations are structured in the form of a bureaucracy.  bureaucracy – a ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures  Bureaucracies were created to rationally organize groups to complete a set of goals Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

25 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Weber’s Model  Division of Labor  work is divided among specialists in various positions, expected to complete specific task  Ranking of Authority  clear-cut lines of authority, each is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level  Employment based on formal qualifications  individuals are hired based on tests, education, or previous experience  Rules and regulations  identify the responsibilities of each person  Specific lines of promotion and advancement  job security and seniority Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

26 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY Effectiveness of Bureaucracies  Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards  Provides stability  Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies  In some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations


Download ppt "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google