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Sociology Unit 2: Culture and Society. Components of Culture.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology Unit 2: Culture and Society. Components of Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociology Unit 2: Culture and Society

2 Components of Culture

3 Cultural Variation Vocabulary Cultural universals Subculture Counterculture Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Cultural diffusion

4 Cultural Universals Cultural Universals: features evident in all cultures What are some features that all cultures have? (Try and Guess 7)

5 Cultural Universals Cultural Universal Examples Arts and Leisure Athletic sports, dancing, decorative art, games, music Basic Needs Clothing, cooking, housing Beliefs Body adornment, folklore, funeral rites, religious ritual Communication and Education Education, language, greetings Family Courtship, kin groups, marriage Government and Economy Calendar, division of labor, government, law, property rights, status differentiation, trade Technology Medicine, toolmaking

6 Response to Variation Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups Cultural relativism: a belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards

7 How is this political cartoon a reflection of ethnocentrism?

8 Cultural Change Cultural diffusion: the process of spreading cultural traits from one society to another Cultural leveling: the process through which cultures become more and more alike

9 Value Systems Vocabulary Self-fulfillment Narcissism

10 The American Value System American ValuesDescriptions/Examples Personal Achievement Progress and Material Comfort Work Individualism Efficiency and Practicality Morality and Humanitarianism Equality and Democracy Freedom

11 Personal Achievement Doing Well at school and at work is important. Gaining wealth and prestige is a sign of success.

12 Progress and Material Comfort History is marked by ongoing progress, and this progress improves people’s lives.

13 Work Discipline, dedication, and hard work are signs of virtue

14 Individualism Hard work, initiative, and individual effort are the keys to personal achievement.

15 Efficiency and Practicality Every problem can be solved through efficiency and practicality. Getting things done well in the shortest time is very important.

16 Morality and Humanitarianism Judgments should be based on a sense of right and wrong. This sense of morality also involves helping the less fortunate.

17 Equality and Democracy Everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely in government.

18 Freedom Personal freedoms, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press, are central to the American way of life

19 New Values: Narcissism Narcissism: the feeling of extreme self-centeredness

20 Social Structures Vocabulary Social structure Status Role Ascribed status Achieved status Master status Role conflict Social institutions

21 Status: a socially defined position in a group or in a society. Achieved Status: a status acquired through their own direct efforts. Master Status: The status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity. Ascribed Status: a status assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s control.

22 Status: Ascribed and Achieved

23 Status: Activity Brainstorm: Your ascribed and achieved statuses Identify your master status. Write a paragraph that explains why this status is characterized as a master status in your life.

24 Roles Statuses serve simply as social categories. Roles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life. Most of the roles that you perform have reciprocal roles. These are corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses. EX. doctor-patient, teacher-student, or coach-athlete Role Play Activity: Obtain an index card with a role. Without speaking, act out the interaction between you and your reciprocal role.

25 Role Conflict, Strain, and Exit Role Conflict: a situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status Role Strain: a situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single status Role Exit: the process that people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity

26 Social Interaction Exchange Reciprocity Exchange theory Competition Vocabulary Conflict Cooperation Accommodation

27 Exchange Most basic and common form of social interaction. Dating, family life, friendship, and politics all involve exchanges. Reciprocity is the basis for exchange the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return.

28 Exchange Theory Definition: a theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with others. People do things primarily for rewards. Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated. exchange theory appears to run counter to some social norms such as altruism.

29 Competition Definition: an interaction that occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain. A common feature in Western society. Basis behind capitalism and democracy If it follows accepted rules of conduct, most sociologists view it as a positive means of motivating people to perform the roles society asks of them. Negatively, competition can lead to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and even conflict.

30 Conflict Definition: The deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person. Few rules of accepted conduct, and even these often are ignored. May range from the deliberate snubbing of a classmate to the killing of an enemy. Four sources of conflict: wars, disagreements within groups, legal disputes, and clashes over ideology (religion or politics) Can be useful Reinforces group boundaries Strengthen group loyalty Bring about social change

31 Cooperation Definition: interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people No group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation from its members. Competition may be used along with cooperation to motivate members to work harder for the group. ASSIGNMENT: Think of groups with which you have been involved. Have they ever used competition along with cooperation? What are some examples?

32 Accommodation Definition: a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Accommodation helps to ensure social stability. It can take a number of different forms Compromise Truce Mediation Arbitration


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