3Cultural Variation Vocabulary Cultural universals Subculture CountercultureEthnocentrismCultural relativismCultural diffusion
4Cultural UniversalsCultural Universals: features evident in all culturesWhat are some features that all cultures have?(Try and Guess 7)
5Cultural Universals Cultural Universal Examples Arts and Leisure Athletic sports, dancing, decorative art, games, musicBasic NeedsClothing, cooking, housingBeliefsBody adornment, folklore, funeral rites, religious ritualCommunication and EducationEducation, language, greetingsFamilyCourtship, kin groups, marriageGovernment and EconomyCalendar, division of labor, government, law, property rights, status differentiation, tradeTechnologyMedicine, toolmaking
6Response to VariationEthnocentrism: the tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groupsCultural relativism: a belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards
7How is this political cartoon a reflection of ethnocentrism?
8Cultural ChangeCultural diffusion: the process of spreading cultural traits from one society to anotherCultural leveling: the process through which cultures become more and more alike
10The American Value System Descriptions/ExamplesPersonal AchievementProgress and Material ComfortWorkIndividualismEfficiency and PracticalityMorality and HumanitarianismEquality and DemocracyFreedom
11Personal AchievementDoing Well at school and at work is important. Gaining wealth and prestige is a sign of success.
12Progress and Material Comfort History is marked by ongoing progress, and this progress improves people’s lives.
13WorkDiscipline, dedication, and hard work are signs of virtue
14IndividualismHard work, initiative, and individual effort are the keys to personal achievement.
15Efficiency and Practicality Every problem can be solved through efficiency and practicality. Getting things done well in the shortest time is very important.
16Morality and Humanitarianism Judgments should be based on a sense of right and wrong. This sense of morality also involves helping the less fortunate.
17Equality and Democracy Everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely in government.
18FreedomPersonal freedoms, such as freedom of religion, speech, and the press, are central to the American way of life
19New Values: Narcissism Narcissism: the feeling of extreme self-centeredness
20Social Structures Vocabulary Social structure Status Role Ascribed statusAchieved statusMaster statusRole conflictSocial institutions
21Status: a socially defined position in a group or in a society. Ascribed Status: a status assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s control.Achieved Status: a status acquired through their own direct efforts.Master Status: The status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.
23Status: Activity Brainstorm: Your ascribed and achieved statuses Identify your master status. Write a paragraph that explains why this status is characterized as a master status in your life.
24RolesStatuses serve simply as social categories. Roles are the components of social structure that bring statuses to life.Most of the roles that you perform have reciprocal roles. These are corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses.EX. doctor-patient, teacher-student, or coach-athleteRole Play Activity: Obtain an index card with a role. Without speaking, act out the interaction between you and your reciprocal role.
25Role Conflict, Strain, and Exit Role Conflict: a situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another statusRole Strain: a situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single statusRole Exit: the process that people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity
26Social Interaction Vocabulary Exchange Reciprocity Exchange theory CompetitionConflictCooperationAccommodation
27Exchange Most basic and common form of social interaction. Dating, family life, friendship, and politics all involve exchanges.Reciprocity is the basis for exchangethe idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return.
28Exchange TheoryDefinition: a theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with others .People do things primarily for rewards. Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated. exchange theory appears to run counter to some social norms such as altruism.
29Competition A common feature in Western society. Definition: an interaction that occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.A common feature in Western society.Basis behind capitalism and democracyIf it follows accepted rules of conduct, most sociologists view it as a positive means of motivating people to perform the roles society asks of them.Negatively, competition can lead to psychological stress, a lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality, and even conflict.
30ConflictDefinition: The deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person.Few rules of accepted conduct, and even these often are ignored.May range from the deliberate snubbing of a classmate to the killing of an enemy.Four sources of conflict: wars, disagreements within groups, legal disputes, and clashes over ideology (religion or politics)Can be usefulReinforces group boundariesStrengthen group loyaltyBring about social change
31CooperationDefinition: interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many peopleNo group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation from its members.Competition may be used along with cooperation to motivate members to work harder for the group.ASSIGNMENT: Think of groups with which you have been involved. Have they ever used competition along with cooperation? What are some examples?
32AccommodationDefinition: a state of balance between cooperation and conflictAccommodation helps to ensure social stability.It can take a number of different formsCompromiseTruceMediationArbitration