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Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) Biology 320 May 20-31, 2008 Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring $1900 approximate cost Scholarships Available! For more information: Dr. Elliott or Dr. Szczys G113 or Planetarium EML
Quiz 6 Maximum score before adjustment was 93.9 (n=2) So two question adjustment was applied to your quizzes. The resulting average was 74.2 which was 3 points better than the Quiz 5 average. The course average includes all papers graded and returned to you. The average of averages is 81.0. This includes a couple of people who I think may have dropped. 1. Open up your Time Log to Todays Green Page. 2. Hold it up until I signal you to put it down. Im looking to see who has not got the first column filled out!
Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life
Homeostasis - metabolism All of these nutritional modes are found among prokaryotes! Eukaryotes are not as diverse in their nutritional modes. Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon Source PhotoautotrophLightCO 2 ChemoautotrophInorganic chemCO 2 PhotoheterotrophLightOrganic chem ChemoheterotrophOrganic chem
How do Archaea tolerate the heat? Proteins stabilized by more ionic bridges between amino acid r-groups and more-hydrophobic core amino acids Heat shock protein (chaperonins) refold denatured proteins…Pyrococcus 121°C for 1 hour! DNA depurination reduced by presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. DNA supercoiling by reverse gyrase reduces denaturation Sac7d in Sulfolobus is a minor groove protein increases the melting temperature by 40°C Histone-like proteins help stabilize DNA as well Heat-resistant di-bi-phytanyl diether lipid membranes (monolayer) prevent delamination of membrane
Cell Membrane Structure O O O O R R O O O O R R Composed of diglycerides R group may be phosphate, sulfate, or sugar Long chain branched hydrocarbon (not fatty acid) Hydrocarbons may be C20 or C40 If C20, the membrane is a bilayer: If C40, the membrane is a monolayer In some species, the membrane is a mixture of both C20 and C40 diglycerides forming a mixed mono-/bi-layer
http://www.molgen.mpg.de/~ag_ribo/ ag_franceschi/franceschi-projects-30S.html Thermus aquaticus Gram negative bacterium (not archaeon) Thermophile isolated from Yellowstone Hot Spring Optimum temperature 85°C Stability of macromolecules excellent Enzymes for research or commercial use Taq polymerase is the enzyme of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Lives near cyanobacteria which feed Thermus http://sci.agr.ca/crda/images/BACTERI1.JPG
Photoautotrophism Photoheterotrophism Chemoautotrophism Chemoheterotrophism Which of these metabolic pathways is Thermus demonstrating? Hint: Organic chemicals for energy Organic chemicals for carbon
How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1 Protista appears
How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1 Protista appears Protista refined
How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1 Protista appears Protista refined So what is this eukaryotic color code all about?
http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/pelomyxapalustris.html Uroid Glycogen body Vacuoles Pseudopodia Endosymbiotic bacteria Pelomyxa palustris Free-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic) Phagocytosis active At least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons! How would you describe the host cells metabolism? Accumulate glycogen reserves
http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/euglena.jpg Euglena gracilis Nucleus Eyespot Anterior invagination With internal short flagellum Long flagellum rooted here also (not shown) Paramylon grain Chloroplasts Protein pellicle (striations) Posterior extension Contractile vacuole Pyrenoid Mitochondrion http://bio.rutgers.edu/euglena/ How would you describe the metabolism?
http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/paraav/images/10-16.jpg Trypanosoma gambiense Blood-borne parasite Flagellated undulating cell Chemical agent causes African sleeping sickness Vectored by Tsetse fly between alternate hosts Nucleus Flagellum http://niah.naro.affrc.go.jp/disease/fact/image/trypanosoma.jpg How would you describe the parasites metabolism?
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imagsmall/amoebafeeding3.jpg Pseudopodia Contractile vacuole Nucleus Food vacuoles Mitochondria Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist Engulfing a Staurastrum green alga The pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis, but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell. How would you describe the amoebas nutritional mode? How would you describe the preys nutritional mode?
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/hoffmangallery/images/stentor.jpg Stentor polymorphus Funnel-shaped protist Cytostome rim is ciliated Food swept into alveolus Cilia Nucleus Holdfast http://comuredsl.com/fotos/stentor.jpg Contractile vacuole Macronucleus Micronucleus How would you describe stentors nutritional mode?
http://pantransit.reptiles.org/images/1998-05-23/Paramecium.jpg Cell Membrane Cilia Trichocysts Contractile Vacuoles Macronucleus Micronucleus Food Vacuoles Paramecium caudatum Oral groove not shown (on back side) A ciliated protist Mitochondrion in cytosol http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/bot4404/BOT4404_1.html Paramecia can be both heterotrophic and autotrophic (at least functionally so) Paramecium bursaria
Ectocarpus siliculosus Marine haploid filamentous thallus with true branching. Produces haploid gamete by mitosis in gametangium: gametangium chloroplasts http://www.biology.lsa.umich.edu/courses/bio458/Ectocarpus.jpg Kingdom Chromista http://www.biologie.uni- erlangen.de/botanik1/photobiologie/images/k ap9/abb9-22.JPG Obviously both photoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic!
http://www.news.wisc.edu/newsphotos/images/potato_blight_s.jpg http://www.science.siu.edu/plant- biology/PLB117/JPEG%20files/potato.blight.jpg http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/wivegdis/images/potatoeb.gif A water mold, Phytophthora infestans, was responsible for the potato blight that led to crop failure, starvation, and emigration of the Irish population in the 1840s. Kingdom Chromista Chemoheterotrophic only!
http://www.bio.mtu.edu/the_wall/phycodisc/RHODOPHYTA/gfx/PORPHYRIDIUM_UNICELL.jpg Porphyridium Cell Wall Cell Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleus Stellate Chloroplast Floridean Starch Vacuole Both chemoheterotrophic And photoautotrophic!
Plant Cell: mesophyll protoplast http://www.botany.wisc.edu/images/mesophyll-protoplast_lg.jpg cell membrane import/export chloroplast photosynthesis cytosol fermentation glycolysis vacuole toxic waste processing nucleus transcription replication (Cell wall was digested off by cellulase) Only Photoautotrophic ?
http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/Chloroplast_and_microbodies.jpg TEM or SEM? of a Plant or Animal Cell?
http://www.up.ac.za/academic/electron/mito1.htm Plant mitochondrion cristae (mesosomes) outer membrane inner membrane matrix TEM or SEM?