Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1 Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2 Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) May 20-31, 2008Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring$1900 approximate costScholarships Available!For more information:Dr. Elliott or Dr. SzczysG113 or Planetarium EML
3 Quiz 6Maximum score before adjustment was 93.9 (n=2)So two question adjustment was applied to your quizzes.The resulting average was 74.2 which was 3 points better than the Quiz 5 average.The course average includes all papers graded and returned to you. The average of averages is This includes a couple of people who I think may have dropped.1. Open up your Time Log to Today’s Green Page.2. Hold it up until I signal you to put it down.I’m looking to see who has not got the first column filled out!
4 Biology: What is Life? life study of Properties of Life Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or manyMetabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energyGrowth: cell enlargement, cell numberMovement: intracellular, movement, locomotionReproduction: avoid extinction at deathBehavior: short term response to stimuliEvolution: long term adaptation
5 Homeostasis - metabolism Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon SourcePhotoautotrophLightCO2ChemoautotrophInorganic chemPhotoheterotrophOrganic chemChemoheterotrophAll of these nutritional modes are found among prokaryotes!Eukaryotes are not as diverse in their nutritional modes.
6 How do Archaea tolerate the heat? Proteins stabilized by more ionic bridges between amino acid r-groups and more-hydrophobic core amino acidsHeat shock protein (chaperonins) refold denatured proteins…Pyrococcus 121°C for 1 hour!DNA depurination reduced by presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.DNA supercoiling by reverse gyrase reduces denaturationSac7d in Sulfolobus is a minor groove protein increases the melting temperature by 40°CHistone-like proteins help stabilize DNA as wellHeat-resistant di-bi-phytanyl diether lipid membranes (monolayer) prevent delamination of membrane
7 Cell Membrane Structure Composed of diglyceridesR group may be phosphate, sulfate, or sugarLong chain branched hydrocarbon (not fatty acid)Hydrocarbons may be C20 or C40If C20, the membrane is a bilayer:ORIf C40, the membrane is a monolayerORIn some species, the membrane is a mixture of both C20 and C40 diglycerides forming a mixed mono-/bi-layer
8 Thermus aquaticus Gram negative bacterium (not archaeon) Thermophile isolated fromYellowstone Hot SpringOptimum temperature 85°CStability of macromolecules excellentEnzymes for research or commercial useTaq polymerase is the enzyme of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)Lives near cyanobacteria which feed Thermusag_franceschi/franceschi-projects-30S.html
9 √ Which of these metabolic pathways is Thermus demonstrating? PhotoautotrophismPhotoheterotrophismChemoautotrophismChemoheterotrophism√Hint:Organic chemicals for energyOrganic chemicals for carbon
10 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 Protista appears 5 3 Extinct 2 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaebacteriaBacteria8Protista appears53Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
11 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 Protista appears 5 3 Extinct 2 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaebacteriaBacteriaProtistarefined8Protista appears53Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
12 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 Protista appears 5 3 Extinct 2 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaebacteriaBacteriaProtistarefined8Protista appears53Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlySo what is this eukaryotic color code all about?Original Cell
13 How would you describe the host cell’s metabolism? PseudopodiaEndosymbioticbacteriaPelomyxa palustrisFree-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic)Phagocytosis activeUroidAccumulate glycogen reservesAt least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons!Glycogen bodyHow would you describe the host cell’s metabolism?Vacuoles
14 How would you describe the metabolism? Euglena gracilisPosterior extensionMitochondrionPyrenoidNucleusChloroplastsParamylon grainProtein pellicle(striations)Contractile vacuoleEyespotAnterior invaginationWith internal short flagellumLong flagellum rooted here also(not shown)
15 How would you describe the parasite’s metabolism? Trypanosoma gambienseBlood-borne parasiteNucleusFlagellated undulating cellFlagellumVectored by Tsetse fly between alternate hostsChemical agent causes African sleeping sicknessHow would you describe the parasite’s metabolism?
16 Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist Engulfing a Staurastrum green algaAmoeba proteusFood vacuolesContractile vacuoleThe pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis, but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell.How would you describe the amoeba’s nutritional mode?NucleusMitochondriaPseudopodiaHow would you describe the prey’s nutritional mode?
17 How would you describe stentor’s nutritional mode? Stentor polymorphusFunnel-shaped protistCytostome rim is ciliatedFood swept into alveolusCiliaContractile vacuoleNucleusHow would you describe stentor’s nutritional mode?HoldfastMicronucleusMacronucleus
18 Oral groove not shown (on back side) CiliaParamecium caudatumCell MembraneA ciliated protistTrichocystsOral groove not shown (on back side)Mitochondrionin cytosolMicronucleusParamecium bursariaMacronucleusContractileVacuolesFoodVacuolesParamecia can be both heterotrophic and autotrophic (at least functionally so)
19 Obviously both photoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic! Ectocarpus siliculosusMarine haploid filamentous thallus with true branching.Produces haploid gamete by mitosis in gametangium:gametangiumchloroplastsKingdom ChromistaObviously both photoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic!
20 Chemoheterotrophic only! A water mold, Phytophthora infestans, was responsible for the potato blight that led to crop failure, starvation, and emigration of the Irish population in the 1840s.Kingdom ChromistaChemoheterotrophic only!
22 Only Photoautotrophic? Plant Cell: mesophyll protoplast(Cell wall was digested off by cellulase)cell membraneimport/exportchloroplastphotosynthesisnucleustranscriptionreplicationvacuoletoxic waste processingcytosolfermentation glycolysisOnly Photoautotrophic?