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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
Euglenozoa Flagellated protists which can be photosynthetic Odd features Protein pellicle instead of cell wall Odd mitochondria (discoid cristae) so unique endosymbiont Chromosomes remain condensed during interphase 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!) Two sub-phyla: 1.Kinetoplasta (Trypanosoma gambiense) sleeping sickness 2.Euglenoida (Euglena) photosynthetic, chlorophyll a,b, paramylum (aka paramylon = ß-1,3-glycan)
http://www.ac- rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/euglena.jpg Euglena gracilis Nucleus Eyespot Anterior invagination With internal short flagellum Long flagellum rooted here also (not shown) Paramylon grain Chloroplasts Protein pellicle (striations) Posterior extension Contractile vacuole Pyrenoid Mitochondrion http://bio.rutgers.edu/euglena/
Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events! Secondary Symbioses Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis Euglenoid mitochondria are unique! For euglenoids, the chloroplast is a secondary endosymbiosis. Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis http://bio.rutgers.edu/euglena/
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imagsmall/amoebafeeding3.jpg Pseudopodia Contractile vacuole Nucleus Food vacuoles Mitochondria Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist Engulfing a Staurastrum green alga http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/deep east01/logs/sep24/media/Foram_600.jpg The pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis, but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell. Marine relatives, the foraminifera, secrete calcareous shells, contributing to reefs and sands.
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/hoffmangallery/images/stentor.jpg Stentor polymorphus Funnel-shaped protist Cytostome rim is ciliated Food swept into alveolus Cilia Nucleus Holdfast http://comuredsl.com/fotos/stentor.jpg Contractile vacuole Macronucleus Micronucleus
Phaeophyta (Kingdom Stramenopila) Photosynthetic, mostly marine brown algae Odd features Body multicellular, supported by water, so simple thallus Sometimes huge (45m!) thallus attached to substrate by holdfast Occasionally pelagic (floating) Sargassum in Sargasso sea Chloroplasts inside rough ER membrane Photosynthetic pigments: chlorophyll a, c, fucoxanthin Storage materials: laminarin polysaccharide Wall polysaccharides: cellulose and alginic acid Tinsel-type flagella on zoospores and gametes, so centriole present Gametangia: antheridia (male) and oogonia (female) Gametes: isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous 1500 species
http://www.uog.edu/classes/botany/images/sphacelaria.jpg Sphacelaria (and diatom) Here are some brown algae which I hope you have or will observe in laboratory… http://www.zagaziguniversity.com/eduimg/Sci/Ectocarpu s_Phaeo/ectocarpus_conifervoides_1271319570_g_543 w.jpg Ectocarpus siliculosus
More Secondary Symbioses Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis For brown algae, the chloroplast is also a secondary endosymbiosis. Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/nucleomorph.jpg rer rough ER nucleomorph phaeoplast
Rhodophyta (A Separate Kingdom?) Photosynthetic, mostly marine red algae Odd features Body multicellular, supported by water, so simple thallus Thallus attached to substrate by holdfast Rarely pelagic (floating) Unique chloroplasts indicate unique endosymbiosis Photosynthetic pigments: chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin…colors can be red, brown, purple, blue, green, blackish! Storage materials: floridean starch in cytosol ( -1,4-glycan) Wall polysaccharides: cellulose and agar or carrageenan No flagella, so centriole missing Gametangia: spermatangia (male) and carpogonium (female) Some species encrust with calcium carbonate…contribute to reefs 4000 species
http://www.dennerle.de/images/pflanzen/algen/bartmic.gif Compsopogon http://www.biology.lsa.umich.edu/courses/bio458/Caloglossa.jpg Caloglossa http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/pho togallery/Callithamnion_baileyi_lb2306.jpg Callithamnion http://www.cibnor.org/colecciones/malgas/i mg/poc.jpg Porphyridium Here are some of the example red algae. Some of these you will or should have observed in laboratory.