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Euglenozoa Flagellated protists which can be photosynthetic Odd features Protein pellicle instead of cell wall Odd mitochondria (discoid cristae) so unique endosymbiont Chromosomes remain condensed during interphase 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!) Two sub-phyla: 1.Kinetoplasta (Trypanosoma gambiense) sleeping sickness 2.Euglenoida (Euglena) photosynthetic, chlorophyll a,b, paramylum (aka paramylon = ß-1,3-glycan)
rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/euglena.jpg Euglena gracilis Nucleus Eyespot Anterior invagination With internal short flagellum Long flagellum rooted here also (not shown) Paramylon grain Chloroplasts Protein pellicle (striations) Posterior extension Contractile vacuole Pyrenoid Mitochondrion
Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events! Secondary Symbioses Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis Euglenoid mitochondria are unique! For euglenoids, the chloroplast is a secondary endosymbiosis. Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis
Pseudopodia Contractile vacuole Nucleus Food vacuoles Mitochondria Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist Engulfing a Staurastrum green alga east01/logs/sep24/media/Foram_600.jpg The pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis, but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell. Marine relatives, the foraminifera, secrete calcareous shells, contributing to reefs and sands.
Stentor polymorphus Funnel-shaped protist Cytostome rim is ciliated Food swept into alveolus Cilia Nucleus Holdfast Contractile vacuole Macronucleus Micronucleus
Phaeophyta (Kingdom Stramenopila) Photosynthetic, mostly marine brown algae Odd features Body multicellular, supported by water, so simple thallus Sometimes huge (45m!) thallus attached to substrate by holdfast Occasionally pelagic (floating) Sargassum in Sargasso sea Chloroplasts inside rough ER membrane Photosynthetic pigments: chlorophyll a, c, fucoxanthin Storage materials: laminarin polysaccharide Wall polysaccharides: cellulose and alginic acid Tinsel-type flagella on zoospores and gametes, so centriole present Gametangia: antheridia (male) and oogonia (female) Gametes: isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous 1500 species
Sphacelaria (and diatom) Here are some brown algae which I hope you have or will observe in laboratory… s_Phaeo/ectocarpus_conifervoides_ _g_543 w.jpg Ectocarpus siliculosus
More Secondary Symbioses Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis For brown algae, the chloroplast is also a secondary endosymbiosis. Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis rer rough ER nucleomorph phaeoplast
Rhodophyta (A Separate Kingdom?) Photosynthetic, mostly marine red algae Odd features Body multicellular, supported by water, so simple thallus Thallus attached to substrate by holdfast Rarely pelagic (floating) Unique chloroplasts indicate unique endosymbiosis Photosynthetic pigments: chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin…colors can be red, brown, purple, blue, green, blackish! Storage materials: floridean starch in cytosol ( -1,4-glycan) Wall polysaccharides: cellulose and agar or carrageenan No flagella, so centriole missing Gametangia: spermatangia (male) and carpogonium (female) Some species encrust with calcium carbonate…contribute to reefs 4000 species
Compsopogon Caloglossa togallery/Callithamnion_baileyi_lb2306.jpg Callithamnion mg/poc.jpg Porphyridium Here are some of the example red algae. Some of these you will or should have observed in laboratory.