Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2Student Center Theater ECSU Biology ClubMeetings: Tuesdays, 5 PM, Goddard LobbyHouse Party9 PM November 13Student Center TheaterFood etc.
3Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) May 20-31, 2008Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring$1900 approximate costScholarships Available!For more information:Dr. Elliott or Dr. SzczysG113 or Planetarium EML
4Spring 2008 Registration Advising Go to the office of your academic advisor… do not telephone her/him!Danielle, Heather, Carlos: Media 224Make an appointment… usually by sign-up sheet posted on the doorFreshmen (<30 cr): November 26-30Sophomores (30-<60 cr): THIS WEEK!
5Regulation of body fluids Disposing of WastesRegulation of body fluids
6Plant cells respond to their environmental solution The plant cell wall prevents bursting. A plant cell is normally bathed in a very hypotonic solution. It takes in water until the cell is full.plasmolysisA plant cell placed in a hypertonic solution loses water. Ultimately outward flow stops when the cytosol concentration matches that of the solution.
7Yearly changes in nitrogen and potassium concentrations in xylem sap of apple trees in New Zealand blossom time2001601208040Kfruit harvestµg element ml-1 sapNAug Oct Dec Feb Apr Junsampling dateThe range of concentrations are far greater than animal cells could tolerate
9This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation The vertebrate liver absorbs excess glucose (forming glycogen)And it releases that glucose when needed laterhighentering liverleaving liverBlood GlucosenormallowmealrestexerciseTime (hours)This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation
10The liver: O NH2 NH3 O=C HN ammonia =O urea NH uric acid Regulates blood glucose levels via glycogen.Converts fermentation-produced lactic acid into glycogen.Interconverts carbohydrates into fats, conversions of fats, and amino acids into carbohydrates or fats.Deaminates amino acids and converts the resulting ammonia into urea and uric acid and releases these nitrogenous wastes into the bloodstream.NH3ammoniaureauric acidNH2O=CHNNH=OODetoxifies a wide range of toxic chemicals including alcohol.Produces blood plasma proteins: fibrinogen, prothrombin, albumin, globulins…recycles aging red blood cellsProduces bile for fat emulsification.
11Ion concentration in sea water and body fluids (mM) Na+Ca2+K+Mg2+Cl-Sea Water4709.910.253.6548Marine invertebratesJellyfish (Aurelia)4549.751.0554Sea urchin (Echinus)4449.650.2522Lobster (Homarus)47210.015.66.8Crab (Carcinus)46812.117.523.6524Freshwater invertebratesMussel (Anodonta)140.311.012Crayfish (Cambarus)14184.108.40.20639Terrestrial animalsCockroach (Periplaneta)1617.94.05.6144Honeybee (Apis)1131.018.021.0--Japanese beetle (Popillia)2016.039.019Chicken (Gallus)15462.3122Human (Homo)1404.52.40.9100What conclusion do you draw from this?
12Which invertebrate shows osmotic regulation? CarcinusWhich invertebrate shows osmotic regulation?NereisMaiaOsmotic concentration of body fluidsSalt Water Brackish Water Fresh WaterOsmotic concentration of medium
13Quiz 11--Lauryn Bonanno please see me. One student missed only two questions, but I adjusted each earned score by three questions. So the 94.1% was increased to 102.9%. Two people therefore were at 100% or better…Congratulations!The average quiz score after adjustment was 74.2%The current average of course averages is 78.7% so we are still basically at the B/C border.We are slipping a bit, however, and I attribute that change to the increasing number of late lab papers and the penalties associated with them. Please don’t torpedo your own grades.Plantae: Vegetative due today before 5 PM.First Draft of Term Project due Monday! If received the following Monday (after Thanksgiving) it will be a 70% penalty! OUCH! Jodi Lavoie please see me.
14What conclusion do you draw from this? Ion concentration in sea water, body fluids, and fresh water (mM)Na+Ca2+K+Mg2+Cl-Sea Water4709.910.253.6548Freshwater organismsBrown trout (Salmo)1446.05.3--151Crayfish (Cambarus)14220.127.116.1139Mussel (Anodonta)140.311.012Freshwater0.650.010.20.5What conclusion do you draw from this?
16Fluid elimination per minute (µm3/100µm3 of protoplasm) Amoeba proteus7654321contractile vacuoleFluid elimination per minute(µm3/100µm3 of protoplasm)Osmotic concentration of medium(% of seawater concentration)
23Earthworm (Lumbricus) nephridium Ion pumping removes Na+Na+Water follows osmoticallyH2OReabsorption into capillariesnephrostomeH2ONa+NH3NH3Concentrated urine empties through the outside body wallPressure forces coelomic fluid into openingnephridiopore
24Polyplacophora: chitons The most-primitive mollusc has 8 valves (plates) protecting its soft tissues beneath. The chiton foot attaches to rocks and the animal uses its radula to scrape organic material from the rock surfaces.
25This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves).dorsal aortagonadheartvalve platespericardial cavity(coelom)hemocoelventricleradulaauriclemantlemouthanusfootdigestive glandstomachnephridiumnephridioporeventral nerve cord(not shown)gonopore
27This cartoon is shows a plane of section perpendiular to the photo. hinge and ligamentThe foot can push a bivalve through sediments.The food-trapping gills are used for gas exchange.The heart pumps the blood into the hemocoel bathing the tissues. It goes through the gills for gas exchange. The blood then returns to the heart.shellheartnephridiumintestinemantlegonadgillsfootNephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste.
28Insects use Malpighian tubules for waste elimination midguthindgut (intestine)cropanusrectummouthsalivary gland
35Functions of the nephron: filtrationactive and passive recovery of saltosmosis of waterconcentration of urineducting for ammonia and uric acid eliminationBowman’s capsuleproximal tubuledistal tubulecortex101286431solute concentration in hundreds of milliosmoles per literH2ONa+ Cl-collecting ductouter medullaNa+ Cl-descending loop of Henleureaascending loop of Henleinner medullato renal pelvis
37Plantae: VegetativeThe highest score was 104%. Congratulations!Six people earned 100% or more! Congratulations!The average on the exercise was 96.6%. Congratulations!This average does not include the four papers that were late.Your score will be included in the course average update on Quiz 12 to be given next week on Thursday.
38Pictogram of movement through the nephron saltproximal tubuleBowman’s capsulewaterdistal tubuleureacollecting ductloop of Henleto renal pelvis
39Nephron: renal capillaries recover sodium and water into the blood after filtration of small moleculesproximal tubuledistal tubuleBowman’s capsulerenal arteryglomeruluscollecting ductrenal veinloop of Henleureter