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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 ECSU Biology Club Meetings: Tuesdays, 5 PM, Goddard Lobby House Party 9 PM November 13 Student Center Theater Food etc.

3 Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) Biology 320 May 20-31, 2008 Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring $1900 approximate cost Scholarships Available! For more information: Dr. Elliott or Dr. Szczys G113 or Planetarium EML

4 Spring 2008 Registration Advising Go to the office of your academic advisor… do not telephone her/him! Danielle, Heather, Carlos: Media 224 Make an appointment… usually by sign-up sheet posted on the door Freshmen (<30 cr): November 26-30 Sophomores (30-<60 cr): THIS WEEK!

5 Disposing of Wastes Regulation of body fluids

6 A plant cell placed in a hypertonic solution loses water. Ultimately outward flow stops when the cytosol concentration matches that of the solution. Plant cells respond to their environmental solution The plant cell wall prevents bursting. A plant cell is normally bathed in a very hypotonic solution. It takes in water until the cell is full. skrat/slike/slike_drobnogled/Elodea/Elodea_list02.jpg plasmolysis

7 Yearly changes in nitrogen and potassium concentrations in xylem sap of apple trees in New Zealand The range of concentrations are far greater than animal cells could tolerate 200 160 120 80 40 0 µg element ml -1 sap blossom time fruit harvest Aug Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun N K sampling date

8 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The concentrations of nutrients are regulated by the human liver The capillaries of the stomach and intestine absorb enough nutrients that would swamp animal cells. The circulation via the portal vein goes to the capillaries in the liver. These regulate blood concentration.

9 The vertebrate liver absorbs excess glucose (forming glycogen) And it releases that glucose when needed later This is a basic example of homeostatic regulation entering liver leaving liver high low normal Blood Glucose Time (hours) mealrestexercise

10 The liver: Regulates blood glucose levels via glycogen. Converts fermentation-produced lactic acid into glycogen. Interconverts carbohydrates into fats, conversions of fats, and amino acids into carbohydrates or fats. Deaminates amino acids and converts the resulting ammonia into urea and uric acid and releases these nitrogenous wastes into the bloodstream. Detoxifies a wide range of toxic chemicals including alcohol. Produces blood plasma proteins: fibrinogen, prothrombin, albumin, globulins…recycles aging red blood cells Produces bile for fat emulsification. NH 3 ammonia urea uric acid NH 2 O=C HN NH =O NH O O

11 What conclusion do you draw from this? Na + Ca 2+ K+K+ Mg 2+ Cl - Sea Water4709.910.253.6548 Marine invertebrates Jellyfish (Aurelia)45410.29.751.0554 Sea urchin (Echinus)4449.69.950.2522 Lobster (Homarus)47210.015.66.8470 Crab (Carcinus)46812.117.523.6524 Freshwater invertebrates Mussel (Anodonta)140.311.00.312 Crayfish (Cambarus)1463.98.14.3139 Terrestrial animals Cockroach (Periplaneta)1617.94.05.6144 Honeybee (Apis)1131.018.021.0-- Japanese beetle (Popillia)2010.016.039.019 Chicken (Gallus)15465.62.3122 Human (Homo)1404.52.40.9100 Ion concentration in sea water and body fluids (mM)

12 Osmotic concentration of body fluids Salt Water Brackish Water Fresh Water Osmotic concentration of medium Maia roductes/fitxa_productes/cabra.jpg ns/thumb/1/18/Nereis_succinea_(epitoke).jpg /800px-Nereis_succinea_(epitoke).jpg Nereis NIMPIS/Carcinus_maenas2.jpg Carcinus Which invertebrate shows osmotic regulation?

13 Quiz 11--Lauryn Bonanno please see me. One student missed only two questions, but I adjusted each earned score by three questions. So the 94.1% was increased to 102.9%. Two people therefore were at 100% or better…Congratulations! The average quiz score after adjustment was 74.2% The current average of course averages is 78.7% so we are still basically at the B/C border. We are slipping a bit, however, and I attribute that change to the increasing number of late lab papers and the penalties associated with them. Please dont torpedo your own grades. Plantae: Vegetative due today before 5 PM. First Draft of Term Project due Monday! If received the following Monday (after Thanksgiving) it will be a 70% penalty! OUCH! Jodi Lavoie please see me.

14 Na + Ca 2+ K+K+ Mg 2+ Cl - Sea Water 4709.910.253.6548 Freshwater organisms Brown trout (Salmo) 1446.05.3--151 Crayfish (Cambarus) 1463.98.14.3139 Mussel (Anodonta) 140.311.00.312 Freshwater 0.650.010.2- Ion concentration in sea water, body fluids, and fresh water (mM) What conclusion do you draw from this? n3/pictures/eastlake-brown-big.jpg

15 spotted.grouper.arp.jpg/793px-Blue-spotted.grouper.arp.jpg Freshwater Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) Saltwater Blue-spotted Grouper (Cephalopholis argus) in hypotonic mediumin hypertonic medium salts water salts dilute urine salts+ water water salts isotonic urine

16 Fluid elimination per minute (µm 3 /100µm 3 of protoplasm) 7654321076543210 0 10 20 30 40 50 Osmotic concentration of medium (% of seawater concentration) contractile vacuole Amoeba proteus

17 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company salts water Contractile vacuole filling The vacuole moves to the cell membrane and empties by exocytosis

18 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Paramecium food vacuole full emptying empty

19 Land Planaria Marine Planaria Bipalium Cryptic Coloration: hiding strategy Aposematic Coloration: warning strategy

20 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Flame cell NH 3 Na + H2OH2O Planaria excretory system

21 Lumbricus terrestris

22 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Each earthworm segment has its own nephridium

23 Pressure forces coelomic fluid into opening Ion pumping removes Na + Na + Water follows osmotically H2OH2O H2OH2O Na + NH 3 Concentrated urine empties through the outside body wall nephridiopore Earthworm (Lumbricus) nephridium nephrostome Reabsorption into capillaries

24 Polyplacophora: chitons The most-primitive mollusc has 8 valves (plates) protecting its soft tissues beneath. The chiton foot attaches to rocks and the animal uses its radula to scrape organic material from the rock surfaces.

25 mouth radula valve plates gonad heart pericardial cavity (coelom) mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach ventral nerve cord (not shown) This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). auricle ventricle nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta

26 How does a bivalve eliminate waste?

27 This cartoon is shows a plane of section perpendiular to the photo. The foot can push a bivalve through sediments. The food-trapping gills are used for gas exchange. The heart pumps the blood into the hemocoel bathing the tissues. It goes through the gills for gas exchange. The blood then returns to the heart. Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste. hinge and ligament nephridium mantle shell gills foot gonad intestine heart

28 anus hindgut (intestine) Malpighian tubules midgut crop rectum salivary gland mouth Insects use Malpighian tubules for waste elimination

29 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Because insects have an open circulation system… Waste elimination is more tied to digestion than to circulation

30 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company prostate The renal excretory system in a male human (Homo sapiens) Females do not have a prostate valve and have a shorter urethra

31 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Longitudinal section diagram of a human kidney renal circulation system renal functional system filtration and concentration unit for blood collection and ducting

32 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Nephron Structure and Function: similar to a nephridium renal cortex renal medulla to renal pelvis

33 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Glomerulus function: the capillary leaks water, ions, and waste molecules into Bowmans capsule

34 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Glomerulus structure: the proteins and blood cells are retained, but water, electrolytes and other small molecules are filtered out.

35 to renal pelvis Functions of the nephron: filtration active and passive recovery of salt osmosis of water concentration of urine ducting for ammonia and uric acid elimination proximal tubule distal tubule Bowmans capsule cortex outer medulla inner medulla collecting duct descending loop of Henle ascending loop of Henle 10 12 8 6 4 3 1 solute concentration in hundreds of milliosmoles per liter H2OH2O Na + Cl - urea Na + Cl -

36 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Active transport of Na + against its concentration gradient Na + This is obviously not only active transport but also an antiport system + P i phospho- lipid bilayer K/Na antiport ATPase transport protein

37 Plantae: Vegetative The highest score was 104%. Congratulations! Six people earned 100% or more! Congratulations! The average on the exercise was 96.6%. Congratulations! This average does not include the four papers that were late. Your score will be included in the course average update on Quiz 12 to be given next week on Thursday.

38 Pictogram of movement through the nephron Bowmans capsule proximal tubule distal tubule collecting duct loop of Henle to renal pelvis salt water urea

39 Nephron: renal capillaries recover sodium and water into the blood after filtration of small molecules proximal tubule distal tubule Bowmans capsule glomerulus renal artery renal vein collecting duct ureterloop of Henle

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