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Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life

2 Homeostasis - metabolism All of these nutritional modes are found among prokaryotes! Eukaryotes are not as diverse in their nutritional modes. Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon Source PhotoautotrophLightCO 2 ChemoautotrophInorganic chemCO 2 PhotoheterotrophLightOrganic chem ChemoheterotrophOrganic chem

3 Photoautotrophs - photosynthesis Ancient pathway, but not universal Cyanobacteria, Algae, Plants light CO 2 + H 2 O O 2 + CH 2 O chlorophyll Purple-sulfur bacteria light CO 2 + H 2 S S s + CH 2 O chlorophyll

4 Cyanobacterial Vegetative Cell cell wall cell membrane lipid droplet nucleoid polyhedral body cyanophycin thylakoids cyanophycean starch vacuole polyphosphate granule mesosome light reactions cytosol Calvin cycle and starch synthesis photosynthesis product RubisCO crystals!

5 Artificial coloration of TEM image But thylakoids shown as green would be natural! The location of bacteriochlorophyll! For the light reactions… In a light microscope image: Thylakoids would not be visible, so green color would appear throughout cytosol with nucleoid region lighter in color allery/Anabaena_cylindrica_629.htm

6 Chemoautotrophs - N metabolism Cyanobacteria, Rhizobium - N 2 fixation H + + ATP + N 2 NH 4 + Nitrosomonas - nitrification 2 CO 2 + NH 4 + NO CH 2 O Pseudomonas - denitrification 2 CH 2 O + 2 NO 2 - N CO H 2 O Which of these processes is demonstrating chemoautotrophism?

7 Nitrosomonas - internal membranes use NH 4 + electrons in an ETS to produce ATP ATP and protons used to reduce CO 2 to CH 2 O

8 Rhizobium needs anaerobic conditions to convert N 2 into NH 4 + Legumes produce heme based molecules and rapid respiration to eliminate oxygen from root nodules that house the bacterium symbiosis

9 Photoheterotrophs - strange Bacteria: Rhodospirillum, Rhodomicrobium Light C 2 H 4 O CH 2 O spirilloxanthin

10 Chemoheterotrophs - common! Escherichia coli and most eukaryotes…even plants! CH 2 O + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Carbohydrate, etc. provides both the energy source and the carbon source What is another chemoheterotrophic organism? Give the complete Latin binomial!

11 Chemoheterotrophy Aerobic Respiration –Glycolysis carbohydrate to pyruvate (in cytosol!) –Citric Acid Cycle pyruvate to carbon dioxide (in cytosol or matrix) –Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation (in mesosomes or cristae) CH 2 O + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Anaerobic Fermentation –Glycolysis to pyruvate (in cytosol) –Fermentive step(s) to return NAD + to glycolysis (in cytosol) C 6 H 12 O 6 C 3 H 3 O 3- C 2 H 5 OH + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 C 3 H 3 O 3- H 3 CCHOHCOO- Notice how fermentation can produce gas or acids… These are just a few of the fermentive possibilities!

12 Cyanobacterial Vegetative Cell cell wall cell membrane lipid droplet nucleoid polyhedral body cyanophycin thylakoids cyanophycean starch vacuole polyphosphate granule mesosome electron transport sytem and oxidative phosphorylation cytosol glycolysis and Krebs cycle fuel for repiration I thought these were only photosynthetic?? Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria…they became mitochondria!

13 Archea have Homeostasis Photoautotroph Calvin Cycle (Methanococcus, Pyrococcus) Chemoautotroph acetyl-CoA or reverse TCA to fix CO 2 Sulfur transporters used to drive ATP synthesis Chemoheterotroph citric acid cycle, fermentation Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon Source PhotoautotrophLightCO 2 ChemoautotrophInorganic chemCO 2 PhotoheterotrophLightOrganic chem ChemoheterotrophOrganic chem Facultative and Obligate Anaerobes and Aerobes

14 archaea/halobacterium/halobacteria_1.jpg 3 chromosomes Main chromosome 2,015 kb 191 kb replicon 366 kb replicon Replicons have genes for: DNA polymerase Transcription factors Mineral uptake (K, PO 4 ) Cell division The genome has many insertion sites for foreign genes Bacteriorhodopsin: Protein + retinal A max 280 UV, 570 green nm energy for proton transport and phosphorylation without photosynthesis! Halobacterium salinarium Aerobic Respiration Up to 5 M (25% NaCl)! Great Salt Lake, Utah Red Sea, Asia Minor

15 Alam/publications/PNAS96-ZHANG.pd Cytoplasm Periplasmic space Cell Membrane Retinal lsu.epfl.ch/sh/bR_full.pdf Bacteriorhodopsin absorbs green from the visible spectrum, so what color is the pigment? Hint: it reflects the other colors of the spectrum

16 Photoautotrophism Photoheterotrophism Chemoautotrophism Chemoheterotrophism Which of these metabolic pathways is Halobacterium demonstrating? Hint: Light for energy Chemicals for carbon

17 Methanococcus jannischii Isolated from white smoker hydrothermal vent 2600m deep on the East Pacific Rise

18 East Pacific Rise Galapagos Islands

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20 Methanococcus jannischii Isolated from white smoker hydrothermal vent 2600m deep on the East Pacific Rise Methanogen Obligate anaerobe H 2 as energy source CO 2 as carbon source CH 4 as byproduct of metabolism Temperature: 50-86°C Other archaeon species found in cow rumen (first stomach) Cow belches 50 L of methane per day What does this electron micrograph tell you? …about cell shape? …about motility?

21 Photoautotrophism Photoheterotrophism Chemoautotrophism Chemoheterotrophism Which of these metabolic pathways is Methanococcus demonstrating? Hint: H 2 for energy CO 2 for carbon

22 Sulfolobus acidocaldarius 75°C Optimum Strict aerobe pH 1 to 6 Oxidize Sulfur or can use Fe 2+ or MnO 4 2- as electron acceptors…uses glycolysis and TCA cycle

23 Photoautotrophism Photoheterotrophism Chemoautotrophism Chemoheterotrophism Which of these metabolic pathways is Sulfolobus demonstrating? Hint: Organic chemicals for energy Organic chemicals for carbon

24 How do Archaea tolerate the heat? Proteins stabilized by more ionic bridges between amino acid r-groups and more-hydrophobic core amino acids Heat shock protein (chaperonins) refold denatured proteins…Pyrococcus 121°C for 1 hour! DNA depurination reduced by presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. DNA supercoiling by reverse gyrase reduces denaturation Sac7d in Sulfolobus is a minor groove protein increases the melting temperature by 40°C Histone-like proteins help stabilize DNA as well Heat-resistant di-bi-phytanyl diether lipid membranes (monolayer) prevent delamination of membrane

25 Cell Membrane Structure O O O O R R O O O O R R Composed of diglycerides R group may be phosphate, sulfate, or sugar Long chain branched hydrocarbon (not fatty acid) Hydrocarbons may be C20 or C40 If C20, the membrane is a bilayer: If C40, the membrane is a monolayer In some species, the membrane is a mixture of both C20 and C40 diglycerides forming a mixed mono-/bi-layer

26 ag_franceschi/franceschi-projects-30S.html Thermus aquaticus Gram negative bacterium (not archaeon) Thermophile isolated from Yellowstone Hot Spring Optimum temperature 85°C Stability of macromolecules excellent Enzymes for research or commercial use Taq polymerase is the enzyme of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Lives near cyanobacteria which feed Thermus

27 Photoautotrophism Photoheterotrophism Chemoautotrophism Chemoheterotrophism Which of these metabolic pathways is Thermus demonstrating? Hint: Organic chemicals for energy Organic chemicals for carbon


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