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Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Euglenophyta/zoa

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Presentation on theme: "Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Euglenophyta/zoa"— Presentation transcript:

1 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Euglenophyta/zoa
Euglenoids Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Euglenophyta/zoa

2 The Organism as a Unit of Life
Looking Back at Bio 115 The Organism as a Unit of Life Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many! Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N2fix, ferment, etc.) Growth = irreversible change in size Reproduction…failure = extinction Acclimatization-short term responses = behavior Adaptation-long term responses = evolution

3 Multicellular Animals
Shifting Kingdoms Lumpers Splitters Plantae Protista 2 3 5 6 8 Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes Tracheophytes Protozoans Myxozoans Multicellular Animals

4 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 5 3 Extinct 2 Long Time with 1
Archaebacteria Archezoans Protozoans Chrysophytes Brown Algae Red algae Green Algae Bryophytes Tracheophytes Slime Molds Multicellular Animals Myxozoans True Fungi Bacteria Euglenoids 8 5 3 Extinct 2 1 Long Time with Prokaryotes only Original Cell

5 Euglenozoa Flagellated protists which can be photosynthetic
Odd features Protein pellicle instead of cell wall Odd mitochondria (discoid cristae) Chromosomes condensed during interphase 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!) Two sub-phyla: Kinetoplasta (Trypanosoma gambiense) sleeping sickness Euglenoida (Euglena) photosynthetic, chlorophyll a,b, paramylum

6 Trypanosoma gambiense
Trypanosoma gambiense Blood-borne parasite Nucleus Flagellated undulating cell Flagellum Vectored by Tsetse fly between alternate hosts Chemical agent causes African sleeping sickness

7 Euglena gracilis Posterior extension Mitochondrion Pyrenoid Nucleus
Chloroplasts Paramylon grain Protein pellicle (striations) Contractile vacuole Eyespot Anterior invagination With internal short flagellum Long flagellum rooted here also (not shown)

8 How Many Kingdoms? Extant Euglenoid mitochondria are unique!
Multicellular Animals Myxozoans Protozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes Euglenoids Archezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis Euglenoid mitochondria are unique! Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis For euglenoids, the chloroplast is a secondary endosymbiosis. Extinct Eubacterium endosymbiosis Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events! Original Cell

9 Scarcodine and Actinopod Protozoans
Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Sarcodina

10 Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist
Engulfing a Staurastrum green alga Amoeba proteus Food vacuoles Contractile vacuole The pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis, but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell. Nucleus Mitochondria Pseudopodia Marine relatives, the foraminifera, secrete calcareous shells, contributing to reefs and sands.

11 Arcella gibbosa Freshwater amoeboid protist Chitinous test
Hyaline connections to the cell Food vacuoles obvious Some have two or more nuclei Pseudopodia protrude from the test Feeding here upon green algae

12 Orbulina universa, or Globigerina bulloides
A living foraminiferan demonstrates its many and delicate pseudopodia In addition to capturing food items, the foram also receives nutrients from its endosymbionts

13 Actinosphaerium eichhorni
This organism is an actinopod. Its axipods are stiff projections rather than delicate pseudopodia. The axipods are stiffened primarily by silicates taken from the water. It is related to many radiolarians which are known only from their tests fossilized in silicate deposits.

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