Presentation on theme: "19.1 Section Objectives – page 503 1. What life characteristic is each of the organisms exhibiting? 2. How are these organisms alike and different? The."— Presentation transcript:
19.1 Section Objectives – page What life characteristic is each of the organisms exhibiting? 2. How are these organisms alike and different? The Amoeba is surrounding its food. The Didinim is feeding on a Paramecium. The Euglena moves by whipping its flagellum. Beating cilia draw food into the mouth of this Stentor.
Unit Overview – pages Protists, and Fungi What is a protist? Animal-like protists Plant-like protists Protists
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Kingdom Protista most diverse organisms of all the kingdoms. Eukaryotes variety of shapes & sizes one or many cells What is a protist?
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Types of protist No typical protists Protozoa: animal-like protists that are heterotrophic Protozoa Unlike animals, though, all protozoans are unicellular.
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Plantlike autotrophic protists are called algae. Algae Types of protist
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Algae Unlike plants, algae do not have organs such as roots, stems, and leaves. Types of protist
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Some are more like fungi because they decompose dead organisms. Unlike fungi, funguslike protists are able to move at some point in their life and do not have chitin in their cell walls. Slime mold Types of protist
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Why Protist? Some protists cause diseases, such as malaria and sleeping sickness, that result in millions of human deaths throughout the world every year. Unicellular algae produce much of the Earth’s oxygen and are the basis of aquatic food chains. Slime molds and water molds decompose
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Four main groups of protozoans: 1. Amoebas (uh MEE buz) 2. Flagellates 3. Ciliates, 4. Sporozoans (spor uh ZOH unz). Diversity of Protozoans
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Amoebas most are harmless but some do cause disease and can be parasitic Nucleus Cytoplasm Pseudopodia Contractile vacuole Food vacuole Amoebas: Shapeless protists
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Flagellates: have one or more flagella. Flagellates: Protozoans with flagella parasites - such as African sleeping sickness in humans. Primary producers for other organisims Giardia lamblia (intestinal parasite)
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Ciliates: Protozoans with cilia Ciliates live in every kind of aquatic habitat—from ponds and streams to oceans and sulfur springs. The roughly 8000 members Ciliates: use the cilia that cover their bodies to move. (tiny hairs) - paramecium Cilia Oral groove Gullet Micronucleus and macronucleus Contractile vacuole Anal pore
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Sporozoans: Parasitic protozoans All are parasites. They live as internal parasites in one or more hosts and have complex life cycles. disease causing - malaria in humans and other mammals and in birds. Sporozoans: produce spores.
Section 19.1 Summary – pages Plantlike protists Algae include both unicellular and multicellular organisms. phytoplankton are so numerous are one of the major producers of nutrients and oxygen in aquatic ecosystems in the world.
Section 19.2 Summary – pages Euglenoids: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Eugelnoids are unicellular, aquatic protists that have both plant and animal characteristics. Flagellum Pellicle Contractile vacuole Eyespot Mitochondrion Chloroplast Nucleus
Diatoms: The golden algae unicellular and photosynthetic make up a large part of phytoplankton. made of silica Abbrasive and reflectant …???...
Dinoflagellates: The spinning algae They have two flagella located in grooves at right angles to each other. Several species of dinoflagellates produce toxins. Red tide
Section 19.2 Summary – pages Dinoflagellates: The spinning algae The toxins produced during a red tide may make humans ill. Red tide
Section 19.2 Summary – pages Algae Red Food (nori) Brown Kelp – most complex Green Most diverse Produce oxygen
Unit Overview – pages Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Fungi What is a Fungus?
20.1 Section Objectives – page Which of these fungi are you familiar with? 2. Why do you think these diverse species are classified into a single kingdom?
Section 20.1 Summary – pages The three main characteristics of Kingdom Fungi: –Incomplete cell walls –Reproduce with spores –Obtain nutrients through extracellular digestion The Characteristics of Fungi
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Fungi are everywhere—in the air and water, on damp basement walls, in gardens, on foods, and sometimes even between people’s toes. The Characteristics of Fungi
Fungus Among Us
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Although there are a few unicellular types of fungi, such as yeasts, most fungi are multicellular. The structure of fungi The basic structural units of multicellular fungi are their hyphae Hyphae are threadlike filaments which develop from fungal spores.
Section 20.1 Summary – pages There are different types of hyphae in a mycelium. Some anchor the fungus, some invade the food source, and others form fungal reproductive structures. The structure of fungi
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Unlike plants, which have cell walls made of cellulose, the cell walls of most fungi contain a complex carbohydrate called chitin. Chitin gives the fungal cell walls both strength and flexibility. The structure of fungi
Section 20.1 Summary – pages break down complex organic substances into raw materials that other living organisms need. (decompose) without fungi, huge amounts of wastes, dead organisms, and debris, cause food to spoil, diseases, and some are poisonous. Yeasts, blue veined cheese, Fungi
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Fungi can be harmful to animals and plants. Fungi
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Fungi are heterotrophs, and they use a process called extracellular digestion to obtain nutrients. In this process, food is digested outside a fungus’s cells, and the digested products are then absorbed. How fungi obtain food
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Chemicals released by hyphae digest dead materials. Hyphae absorb the digested food. How fungi obtain food
Section 20.1 Summary – pages A fungus may be a saprophyte, a mutualist, or a parasite depending on its food source. Saprophytes - decomposers and feed on waste or dead organic material. Different feeding relationships Mutualists live in a symbiotic relationship with another organism, such as an alga.
Section 20.1 Summary – pages Parasites absorb nutrients from the living cells of their hosts. Different feeding relationships Haustorium Host cell Fungal hypha