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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Levels of Organization Biology 4(A), Biology 10(C)

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1 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Levels of Organization Biology 4(A), Biology 10(C)

2 Learning Objectives Relate the levels of organization to each other and to the whole system Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Ch. 7 of text) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

3 Ecologists use nested levels of organization to make interactions clear – Atom (hydrogen atom)  Molecule (DNA molecule, water molecule)  Cell (epithelial cell)  Tissue (similar cells working together, epithelial layer)  Organ (different tissues working together, stomach)  Organ system (digestive system)  organism  population  community  ecosystem  biome  biosphere Levels of Organization

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5 All living cells can be divided into two groups: Prokaryotic cells – simple cells – Single-celled organisms (eubacteria, archaebacteria and blue- green algae) Eukaryotic cells – more complex cells – Members of Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia are all eukaryotes! – Single-celled organisms (most protists) – Compose multi-cellular organisms (few protists, fungi, plants and animals) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

6 Eukaryotes contain Well-defined nucleus Membrane-bound organelles Prokaryotes contain No nucleus No membrane-bound organelles Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell

7 Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain Cell (plasma) membrane Cytoplasm Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell

8 Both contain DNA material Eukaryotes – organized into chromosomes in nucleus Prokaryotes – circular segment of DNA in cytoplasm and sometimes plasmids Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell

9 Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain Ribosomes - sites of protein synthesis, composed of RNA Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Ribosomes Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell

10 All prokaryotic and some eukaryotic cells contain a cell wall Eukaryotes – plant cell walls contain cellulose, fungi cell walls contain chitin Prokaryotes – bacterial cell walls composed of amino acids and sugars (peptidoglycan in Eubacteria) Cell Wall Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell

11 Some prokaryotic and some eukaryotic cells have flagella Flagella – long, hair like structures on the surface of the cell that aids in locomotion Flagellum Similarities Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cell (Euglena, Kingdom Protista) Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria)

12 Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus No nuclear membrane No mitochondria No Golgi apparatus No lysosomes No plastids Eukaryotic Cells Membrane-bound organelles: – Nucleus – Nuclear membrane – Mitochondria – Golgi apparatus – Lysosomes – Plastids Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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14 Cellular Control Center: Nucleus: contains DNA *DNA in prokaryotes is found in the cytoplasm! Organelles that Capture energy: – Chloroplasts: convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in food (PLANTS) – Mitochondria: convert chemical energy to usable compounds Organelles that store, clean- up and support: – Vacuoles and vesicles: store materials – Lysosomes: break down and recycle macromolecules (rare in plants) – Cytoskeleton: maintains cell shape, moves cell parts, helps cell move – Centrioles: cell division (ANIMAL) Eukaryotic Cell Organelles

15 Organelles that Build Proteins: – Ribosomes: synthesize proteins (ALL CELLS) – Endoplasmic Reticulum: assembles proteins and lipids – Golgi Apparatus: modifies, sorts and packages proteins and lipids for storage or transport out of the cells Cell Boundaries: – Cell wall: shapes, supports and protects cells (plant, prokaryotes, Fungi) – Cell Membrane: regulates materials entering and leaving cell; protects and supports cell (ALL CELLS) Eukaryotic Cell Organelles

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20 Greatest evolutionary advantage of eukaryotes Chromosomal organization of the DNA material – Enables mitosis and meiosis to occur Mitosis was a prerequisite for multicellular organisms Prokaryotic cells suited for their environment and niche Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

21 Prokaryote – “before nucleus,” simple cell lacking nucleus Example: bacteria Eukaryote – “true nucleus,” more complex cell containing nucleus Example: plant cell Which cell type evolved first? Theory: Prokaryotes Cell Complexity

22 How did the first prokaryotes evolve? Theory: Bubble Theory (coacervates) Scientific explanation: Bubble Theory – bubble-like structures (coacervates) form hollow spheres in water Form because of chemical properties Organic molecule produced – Primitive cell membrane? Bubble Theory

23 How did complex eukaryotes evolve? Theory: Prokaryotes evolved into eukaryotes Scientific explanation: Origin of nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum – Bacteria have inward foldings of outer membranes extending into cytoplasm – Serve as passageways to surface First Eukaryotes

24 Scientific explanation: Origin of nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum – Endoplasmic reticulum – network of internal membranes Evolved from these infoldings – Nuclear envelope – extension of ER network that isolates and protects the nucleus First Eukaryotes

25 Scientific explanation: Origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts – Endosymbiotic bacteria – bacteria that live within other cells and perform specific functions for host cells – Endosymbiotic Theory – suggests critical stage in evolution of eukaryotic cells involved endosymbiotic relationships with prokaryotes Energy-producing bacteria reside in larger bacteria, eventually evolving into mitochondria Photosynthetic bacteria live within larger bacteria, leading to evolution of chloroplasts First Eukaryotes

26 Support for endosymbiotic theory Presence of numerous symbiotic relationships Present-day mitochondria, chloroplasts, and centrioles contain their own DNA – Similar to DNA of bacteria in size and character

27 Learning Objectives Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells


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