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Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life
Homeostasis - metabolism All of these nutritional modes are found among prokaryotes! Eukaryotes are not as diverse in their nutritional modes. Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon Source PhotoautotrophLightCO 2 ChemoautotrophInorganic chemCO 2 PhotoheterotrophLightOrganic chem Chemoheterotroph Organic chem
Homeostasis - metabolism In eukaryotic homeostasis, we usually abbreviate the mode names because there is so little diversity… Photosynthetic = autotrophic Non-photosynthetic = heterotrophic Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon Source PhotoautotrophLightCO 2 ChemoautotrophInorganic chemCO 2 PhotoheterotrophLightOrganic chem Chemoheterotroph Organic chem
Eukaryotes What is special about them? How big are their cells? What type of metabolism do they have? Which electron acceptor do they use? What is special about oxygen as an electron acceptor? What do they do poorly?
How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only Protista appears
How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only Protista appears Protista refined
Uroid Glycogen body Vacuoles Pseudopodia Endosymbiotic bacteria Pelomyxa palustris Free-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic) Phagocytosis active At least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons! How would you describe the host cells metabolism? Accumulate glycogen reserves Fermentation Only!
rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/euglena.jpg Euglena gracilis Nucleus Eyespot Anterior invagination With internal short flagellum Long flagellum rooted here also (not shown) Paramylon grain Chloroplasts Protein pellicle (striations) Posterior extension Contractile vacuole Pyrenoid Mitochondrion How would you describe the metabolism? Photoautotrophic and Chemoheterotrophic!
Trypanosoma gambiense Blood-borne parasite member of euglenophyta Flagellated undulating cell Chemical agent causes African sleeping sickness Vectored by Tsetse fly between alternate hosts Nucleus Flagellum How would you describe the parasites metabolism? Chemoheterotrophic!
Pseudopodia Contractile vacuole Nucleus Food vacuoles Mitochondria Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist Engulfing a Staurastrum green alga The pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis, but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell. How would you describe the amoebas nutritional mode? Chemoheterotrophic! How would you describe Staurastrums nutritional mode? Photoautotrophic and Heteterotrophic!
Stentor polymorphus Funnel-shaped protist Cytostome rim is ciliated Food swept into alveolus Cilia Nucleus Holdfast Contractile vacuole Macronucleus ( N) Micronucleus (2N) How would you describe Stentors nutritional mode? Chemohetero- trophic! replication transcription
Cell Membrane Cilia Trichocysts Contractile Vacuoles Macronucleus Micronucleus Food Vacuoles Paramecium caudatum Oral groove not shown (on back side) A ciliated protist Mitochondrion in cytosol Paramecia can be both heterotrophic and autotrophic (at least functionally so) Paramecium bursaria endosymbiont
Ectocarpus siliculosus Marine haploid filamentous thallus with true branching. Produces motile gamete by mitosis in gametangium. gametangium chloroplasts Kingdom Chromista (aka Stramenopila) erlangen.de/botanik1/photobiologie/images/kap9/a bb9-22.JPG Obviously both photoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic! stramenopila-flagellum
biology/PLB117/JPEG%20files/potato.blight.j pg A water mold, Phytophthora infestans, was responsible for the potato blight that led to crop failure, starvation, and emigration of the Irish population in the 1840s. Kingdom Chromista Chemoheterotrophic only!
Porphyridium Cell Wall Cell Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleus Stellate Chloroplast Floridean Starch Vacuole Both chemoheterotrophic And photoautotrophic!
Plant Cell: mesophyll protoplast cell membrane import/export chloroplast photosynthesis cytosol fermentation glycolysis vacuole toxic waste processing nucleus transcription replication (Cell wall was digested off by cellulase) Only Photoautotrophic?
TEM or SEM? of a Plant or Animal Cell? glycolysis (fermentation) Krebs cycle (aka TCA cycle, citric acid cycle) electron transport system oxidative phosphorylation light reactions Aerobic Respiration Calvin cycle (aka dark reactions) Photosynthesis
Plant mitochondrion cristae (mesosomes) outer membrane inner membrane matrix TEM or SEM? Krebs cycle (aka TCA cycle, citric acid cycle) electron transport system oxidative phosphorylation
Saccharomyces: yeast from kingdom Fungi? Cell wall: chitin not cellulose Mitosis nearly complete Cytokinesis via furrowing (budding!) ? ? Chemoheterotrophic only! Facultative: Aerobic Respiration with mitochondria Anaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation in cytosol Has more mitochondria in 3rd dimension…this is a TEM Thin slices miss components…this cell appears to lack mitochondria ! Think 3D…
How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only Protista appears Protista refined So what is this eukaryotic color code all about?