Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1 Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2 Biology: What is Life? life study of Properties of Life Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or manyMetabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energyGrowth: cell enlargement, cell numberMovement: intracellular, movement, locomotionReproduction: avoid extinction at deathBehavior: short term response to stimuliEvolution: long term adaptation
3 Homeostasis - metabolism Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon SourcePhotoautotrophLightCO2ChemoautotrophInorganic chemPhotoheterotrophOrganic chemChemoheterotrophAll of these nutritional modes are found among prokaryotes!Eukaryotes are not as diverse in their nutritional modes.
4 Homeostasis - metabolism Nutrition ModeEnergy SourceCarbon SourcePhotoautotrophLightCO2ChemoautotrophInorganic chemPhotoheterotrophOrganic chemChemoheterotrophIn eukaryotic homeostasis, we usually abbreviate the mode names because there is so little diversity…Photosynthetic = autotrophic Non-photosynthetic = heterotrophic4
5 Eukaryotes What is special about them? How big are their cells? What type of metabolism do they have?Which electron acceptor do they use?What is special about oxygen as an electron acceptor?What do they do poorly?
6 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 Protista appears 5 3 Extinct 2 1 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaeaBacteria8Protista appears53Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
7 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 Protista appears 5 3 Extinct 2 1 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaeaBacteriaProtistarefined8Protista appears53Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
8 How would you describe the host cell’s metabolism? PseudopodiaEndosymbioticbacteriaPelomyxa palustrisFree-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic)Phagocytosis activeUroidAccumulate glycogen reservesAt least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons!Glycogen bodyHow would you describe the host cell’s metabolism?VacuolesFermentation Only!
9 How would you describe the metabolism? Photoautotrophic and Chemoheterotrophic!Euglena gracilisPosterior extensionMitochondrionPyrenoidNucleusChloroplastsParamylon grainProtein pellicle(striations)Contractile vacuoleEyespotAnterior invaginationWith internal short flagellumLong flagellum rooted here also(not shown)
10 How would you describe the parasite’s metabolism? Trypanosoma gambienseNucleusBlood-borne parasite member of euglenophytaFlagellumFlagellated undulating cellVectored by Tsetse fly between alternate hostsChemical agent causes African sleeping sicknessHow would you describe the parasite’s metabolism?Chemoheterotrophic!
11 Amoeba proteus A freshwater amoeboid protist Engulfing a Staurastrum green algaAmoeba proteusFood vacuolesContractile vacuoleThe pseudopodia assist in locomotion and phagocytosis,but they also secrete proteolytic enzymes to digest particles outside the cell.NucleusHow would you describe the amoeba’s nutritional mode?Chemoheterotrophic!MitochondriaPseudopodiaHow would you describe Staurastrum’s nutritional mode?Photoautotrophic and Heteterotrophic!
12 How would you describe Stentor’s nutritional mode? Stentor polymorphusFunnel-shaped protistCytostome rim is ciliatedFood swept into alveolusCiliaContractile vacuoleHow would you describe Stentor’s nutritional mode?Chemohetero-trophic!NucleusHoldfastMicronucleus (2N)Macronucleus (N)replicationtranscription
13 Paramecium caudatum A ciliated protist Cell MembraneA ciliated protistTrichocystsOral groove not shown (on back side)Mitochondrionin cytosolMacronucleusMicronucleusParamecium bursariaContractileVacuolesendosymbiontFoodVacuolesParamecia can be both heterotrophic and autotrophic (at least functionally so)
15 Ectocarpus siliculosus Marine haploid filamentous thallus with true branching.Produces motile gamete by mitosis in gametangium.gametangiumstramenopila-flagellumchloroplastsKingdom Chromista (aka Stramenopila)Obviously both photoautotrophicand chemoheterotrophic!
16 Chemoheterotrophic only! A water mold, Phytophthora infestans, was responsible for the potato blight that led to crop failure, starvation, and emigration of the Irish population in the 1840s.Kingdom ChromistaChemoheterotrophic only!
18 Only Photoautotrophic? Plant Cell: mesophyll protoplast(Cell wall was digested off by cellulase)cell membraneimport/exportchloroplastphotosynthesisnucleustranscriptionreplicationvacuoletoxic waste processingcytosolfermentationglycolysisOnly Photoautotrophic?
19 Calvin cycle (aka “dark” reactions) TEM or SEM? of a Plant or Animal Cell?Aerobic RespirationKrebs cycle (aka TCA cycle, citric acid cycle)Photosynthesislight reactionsglycolysis (fermentation)electron transport systemoxidative phosphorylationCalvin cycle (aka “dark” reactions)
20 Plant mitochondrion matrix TEM or SEM? outer membrane inner membrane Krebs cycle (aka TCA cycle, citric acid cycle)TEM or SEM?outer membraneinner membranecristae(mesosomes)electron transport systemoxidative phosphorylation
22 Saccharomyces: yeast from kingdom Fungi? Mitosis nearly complete Cytokinesis via furrowing (budding!)Facultative:Aerobic Respiration with mitochondriaAnaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation in cytosol?Cell wall: chitin not celluloseChemoheterotrophic only!Has more mitochondria in 3rd dimension…this is a TEMThin slices miss components…this cell appears to lack mitochondria ! Think 3D…
24 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 Protista appears 5 3 Extinct 2 1 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaebacteriaBacteriaProtistarefined8Protista appears53Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlySo what is this eukaryotic color code all about?Original Cell