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Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life

2 Cell Structure Prokaryotic beforenucleus Eukaryotic truenucleus

3 Comparing Cell Sizes Mycoplasma 0.3-0.8 µm E. coli 1x2 µm Cyanobacteria 10 µm diam Plant Cell 30x75 µm Obviously eukaryotic Nucleus present Mitochondrion Bacterium Chloroplast Cyanobacterium

4 Cell Structure: Boundary Gram PositiveGram Negative Mycoplasma cell membrane bilayer glycolipid, sulfolipid transport proteins cell wall-murein peptidoglycan muramic acid - peptide additional membrane bilayer glyco- sulfo-lipids cytosol regulates input/output ETS for PSN, Resp prevents dye release prevents bursting turgor pressure penicillin sensitive releases dye Water and enzymes for fermentation, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Calvin cycle, naked circular DNA for transcription, 70S ribosomes for translation

5 Prokaryotic Cell Shapes Coccus - cocci Bacillus - bacillus Spirillum - spirilli Vibrio - vibrios

6 http://www.up.ac.za/academic/electron/bacteria.jpg Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image..the shape?

7 http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/Cells/cell91.gif ? ? Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image..the shape?

8 http://dac.molbio.ku.dk/Sulfolobus.jpg Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Extremophile Sulfur metabolism pH 1 to 6 75°C Optimum Strict aerobe Partial monolayer (C40) membranes Multiple DNA Circles Introns in DNA DNA binding proteins rRNA similarity RNA synthase similarity Operon style regulation 70S ribosomes TEM or SEM? Of Archaeon Shape?

9 http://phil.cdc.gov/PHIL_Images/02142002/00001/PHIL_138.tif Bacterium of the Genus: Leptospira TEM or SEM?Shape?

10 http://www.designthatmatters.org/proto_portfolio/cholera_treatment/multimedia/vibrio_cholerae.jpg http://helico.gsnu.ac.kr/ Vibrio cholerae Helicobacter pylori What are the shapes of these disease bacteria? Are they motile? If so, by what mechanism?

11 Cell Structure: Movement anchorage rotation basal rings and rod stiff helical flagellum is rotated by motor apparatus in the membrane by H+ ATPase at rates of 200-1700 rps (>12,000 rpm!) hook directional rotation? flagellin protein Exceptions: myxomycetes, some cyanobacteria use slime, but how? spirochetes have flexible internal microtubules (endosymbiotic source of flagella in eukaryotes?) ((gut parasite in termites have spirochete symbiosis)) Taxis: movement toward stimulus phototaxis: movement toward light chemotaxis: movement to chemicals

12 Prokaryotic Growth Cells are generally very small Cells may double in size but only before binary fission Growth mostly in terms of cell number or colony size, etc. Doubling time in cell numbers may be 20 minutes in ideal conditions Could quickly take over the earth if conditions could remain ideal Very competitive in ideal environments Ultimate survivors - 3.5 billion years!

13 Cell Structure: Nucleoid transcription by RNA polymerase one circular DNA molecule no histone protein association attached to cell membrane separation of chromosomes replication by DNA polymerase Nucleoid - genome translation of mRNA into protein rRNA + protein + ribozymes 70S Ribosome cytokinesis by furrowing Process called binary fission NOT mitosis! Genome and copy are identical Genome is haploid There is no synapsis There is no recombination

14 Cell Associations Coccus Diplococcus Streptococcus - filamentous Staphylococcus - colonial ? Streptobacillus

15 http://www.hhs.gov/asphep/presentation/images/bacteria.jpg What shapes and associations are shown in these SEMs?

16 http://www.jgi.doe.gov/JGI_microbial/images/microbes2003/anava.jpg An artificially colored TEM of a cyanobacterium. Thylakoids contain chlorophyll a (green) Metabolism? Association? Shape?

17 http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/anabaena.jpg Heterocyst (N 2 fixation) Akinete (hypnospore) Anabaena --a cyanobacterium w/ division of labor Vegetative Cells (Photosynthesis)

18 http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/CBDivideTEM.jpg Cyanobacterial Vegetative Cell (photosynthesis) cell wall cell membrane lipid droplet nucleoid polyhedral body cyanophycin thylakoids cyanophycean starch vacuole polyphosphate granule mesosome

19 http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/Heterocyst.jpg Cyanobacterial Heterocyst (N 2 fixation) cell wall cell membrane nucleoid pore in wall mesosome ETS for O 2 reduction fuel input for respiration O 2 block cytosol Nitrogenase reduces N 2 (requires anaerobic conditions)

20 http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/AkineteEMBlue400.jpg Cyanobacterial Akinete (hypnospore) cell wall cell membrane lipid droplet nucleoid polyhedral body cyanophycin thylakoids cyanophycean starch vacuole polyphosphate granule

21 http://www-cyanosite.bio.purdue.edu/images/lgimages/oreg4.jpg Germinating akinetes (producing vegetative filaments)

22 Cell Structure Prokaryotic beforenucleus Eukaryotic truenucleus

23 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis http://www.stockhillhouse.co.uk/griffon.jpg Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events!

24 Archezoans Protozoan parasites without mitochondria or Golgi Oldest nucleated cells Diverged from other Eukaryotes 2bybp… prior to ER and Golgi evolution Lack peroxisomes Ribosomes are 70S but NOT 80S 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!) Three phyla: 1.Archaeamoebae/Pelobiontida (Pelomyxa) 2.Metamonada (Giardia) 3.Microsporidia

25 http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/pelomyxapalustris.html Uroid Glycogen body Vacuoles Pseudopodia Endosymbiotic bacteria Pelomyxa palustris Free-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic) Phagocytosis active At least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons! Anterior uroid (macropseudopodium) for amoeboid movement Smaller pseudopodia do not enlarge Accumulate glycogen reserves

26 http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/ pelomyxapalustris.html http://www.microscopy- uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/protozoa/frame3.html Reproduction: Nuclei Daughter Amoeba Mitosis of nucleus Cytokinesis by furrowing What would you suggest has been a large component of this individuals phagocytosis diet?

27 Trichonympha Termite gut protist symbiont lacking mitochondria Protist has bacterial endosymbionts making cellulase for digesting wood particles taken in by phagocytosis And spirochete ectosymbionts for motility http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgmar03/Trichonympha755.jpg spirochetes wood particles and bacteria nucleus

28 Euglenozoa Flagellated protists which can be photosynthetic Odd features Protein pellicle instead of cell wall Odd mitochondria (discoid cristae) so unique endosymbiont Chromosomes remain condensed during interphase 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!) Two sub-phyla: 1.Kinetoplasta (Trypanosoma gambiense) sleeping sickness 2.Euglenoida (Euglena) photosynthetic, chlorophyll a,b, paramylum

29 http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/euglena.jpg Euglena gracilis Nucleus Eyespot Anterior invagination With internal short flagellum Long flagellum rooted here also (not shown) Paramylon grain Chloroplasts Protein pellicle (striations) Posterior extension Contractile vacuole Pyrenoid Mitochondrion http://bio.rutgers.edu/euglena/

30 Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events! How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis Euglenoid mitochondria are unique! For euglenoids, the chloroplast is a secondary endosymbiosis. Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis http://bio.rutgers.edu/euglena/

31 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaea Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis For brown algae, the chloroplast is also a secondary endosymbiosis. Chlorophyte algal endosymbiosis http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/nucleomorph.jpg rer rough ER nucleomorph phaeoplast

32 Comparing Cell Sizes Mycoplasma 0.3-0.8 µm E. coli 1x2 µm Cyanobacteria 10 µm diam Plant Cell 30x75 µm Obviously eukaryotic Nucleus present Mitochondrion Bacterium Chloroplast Cyanobacterium

33 Vacuole -toxic waste processing Eukaryotic Cell Structure Middle Lamella-pectin glue Cell Membrane-phospholipid -transport proteins Cytosol-enzymes for -fermentation -glycolysis Nucleus-DNA linear histone bound -transcription -replication Endoplasmic Reticulum -internal transport 80S Ribosomes -protein synthesis -translation Golgi Apparatus -sorting -packaging Vesicles -import/export package Mitochondria -respiration 70S ribosomes naked, circular DNA Cell Wall-cellulose+protein Chloroplast -photosynthesis 70S ribosomes naked, circular DNA Other eukaryotic organelles have been omitted here!

34 http://gecko.gc.maricopa.edu/~lsola/Leaf/Leafxs.jpg cell wall cellulose + protein + wax chloroplast photosynthetic endosymbiont nucleus RNA transcription, DNA replication vacuole toxic waste processing cytosol fermentation, glycolysis, etc. gas space cooling and gas exchange TEM, SEM, Light Microscopy? Protist, Plant, Animal, Fungus? Natural or Artificial Coloring?

35 http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/Chloroplast_and_microbodies.jpg TEM or SEM? of a Plant or Animal Cell?

36 Cell: a mesophyll protoplast http://www.botany.wisc.edu/images/mesophyll-protoplast_lg.jpg cell membrane import/export chloroplast photosynthesis cytosol fermentation glycolysis vacuole toxic waste processing nucleus transcription replication natural or artificial coloring? ? TEM, SEM, or Light? (Cell wall was digested off by cellulase)

37 Protist, Plant, Animal, Fungus? http://www.tmd.ac.jp/artsci/biol/textbook/nucleus.gif endoplasmic reticulum internal transport nucleus transcription, replication mitochondrion respiration zymogen granule protein storage enzyme secretion DNA ? ? RNA ? 80S ribosome translation cytosol fermentation, glycolysis

38 http://www.jhu.edu/iic/Yeast_1.png Saccharomyces: yeast from kingdom? Cell wall: chitin not cellulose Mitosis nearly complete Cytokinesis via furrowing (budding!) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Fungi


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