2Cell TheoryThe cell theory is the unifying theme in biology because it emphasizes the similarity of all living things.All organisms are composed of one or more cells.Cells are the smallest living units of all living organisms.Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.
3Cell CharacteristicsCells contain specialized structures to perform functions necessary for life.Cellular activities necessary for life include chemical reactions that facilitate:acquiring energyreproductionadaptationmaintaining homeostasis
4Cell CharacteristicsThe basic processes necessary for living things to survive are the same for a single cell as they are for a more complex organism.A single-celled organism has to conduct all life processes by itself.A multi-cellular organism has groups of cells that specialize to perform specific functions.
5Cell Characteristics All cells contain: Genetic material single circular molecule of DNA in prokaryotesdouble helix located in nucleus in eukaryotesCytoplasm jelly-like substance that fills the cells interiorPlasma membrane encloses the cell– phospholipid bilayerPhospholipidsMembraneproteins
6Cell TypesCell structure is one of the ways in which organisms differ from each other.2 Types of CellsProkaryoteEukaryote
7Prokaryotic Cells Earth’s first cells were prokaryotes. The simplest life forms are the prokaryotes.Prokaryotic cells exist in two major forms: eubacteria and archaebacteria.
8Prokaryotic CellsProkaryotes are the Earth’s most abundant inhabitants. They can survive in a wide range of environments and obtain energy in a variety of ways.
9Prokaryotic CellsProkaryotes are cells that lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.Bacteria and related microorganisms are prokaryotes
10Prokaryotic Cells Some use flagellum for locomotion ALL are UNICELLULARBacterial cell wallRotarymotorFlagellumSheath
12EukaryoteEukaryotes arose from prokaryotes and developed into larger more complex organisms.Eukaryotes are cells that contain a nucleus and organelles surrounded by a membrane, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.
13Eukaryote Can be both unicellular or multi-cellular Examples of eukaryotes are:All fungus, plant, and animal cells
17Nucleus Stores genetic material Contains DNA site where RNA is made Nucleolus: Chromatin and ribosomal subunitsNuclear envelope:Double membrane with poresLargest organelleBRAIN of the cell – controls protein synthesis
21RibosomesRibosomes are RNA-protein complexes composed of two subunits that join and attach to messenger RNA.site of protein synthesisassembled in nucleolus
22RibosomesThey can be found alone in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.Alone in cytoplasm- makes proteins for use within the cellAttached to RER- makes proteins for export out of the cell
24Endoplasmic reticulum transports materials through the cellRough ER - studded with ribosomesAttached to nuclear membranesite of protein synthesis and processingSmooth ER - lacks ribosomessite of synthesis of phospholipids and the packaging of proteins into vesicles
31Lysosomes vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes and are involved in intracellular digestion of food particles, disease causing bacteria and worn out cell parts
34Vacuoles Found in PLANT and ANMAL cells The vacuole acts a container, storing water and dissolved particlesPlants have a large central vacuole for water storageUnicellular animals can use contractile vacuoles for movement
35Organelles With DNA Mitochondria Chloroplasts site of cell respiration site of photosynthesis
36Mitochondria "Powerhouse of the cell" - cellular metabolism Structure- outer and inner membranes, cristaeFound in both plant and animal cellsVery active cells have more mitochondria
37ChloroplastsChloroplasts are larger and more complex than mitochondriaContain green pigment called chlorophyll that absorbs sunlight in the first step of photosynthesisFound ONLY in PLANTS
38Cell Membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell Found in ALL cellsPhospholipid bilayer with transport proteins, and cholesterol (for flexibility)
42CytoskeletonLong slender protein tubes and fibers that extend from the nucleus to the plasma membrane.The cytoskeleton contains three types of elements responsible for cell shape, movement within the cell, and movement of the cell:Actin filamentsMicrotubulesIntermediate filaments
43Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton contains three types of elements : Actin filaments
44Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton contains three types of elements: Microtubules
45Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton contains three types of elements: Intermediate filaments
55Endosymbiosis Heterotrophic bacteria became mitochondria. Endosymbiosis theory suggests that eukaryotes arose from a symbiotic relationship between various prokaryotes.Heterotrophic bacteria became mitochondria.Cyanobacteria became chloroplasts.Host cell was a large eukaryotic cell.
56Endosymbiosis Prokaryotic cell is engulfed Eukaryotic cell Symbiosis
62Cell DifferentiationCell specialization occurs during the development of a multi-cellular organism.The genetic information necessary for all cellular functions remains in each cell but may not be used.