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Archezoa Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Archaezoa.

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Presentation on theme: "Archezoa Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Archaezoa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Archezoa Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Phylum Archaezoa

2 Looking Back at Bio 115 The Organism as a Unit of Life Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many! Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N 2 fix, ferment, etc.) Growth = irreversible change in size Reproduction…failure = extinction Acclimatization-short term responses = behavior Adaptation-long term responses = evolution

3 Shifting Kingdoms 23568 Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes Tracheophytes Protozoans Myxozoans Multicellular Animals Lumpers Splitters AnimaliaProtista

4 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1 Protista appears

5 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1 Protista appears Protista refined

6 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only 8 5 3 2 1 Protista appears Protista refined Still needs refining!

7 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Cyanobacterium endosymbiosis Eukaryotes ARE Chimeras! Eubacterium endosymbiosis http://www.stockhillhouse.co.uk/griffon.jpg Though sketched here as single events, these endosymbioses were very likely multiple events!

8 Archezoans Protozoan parasites without mitochondria or Golgi Oldest nucleated cells Diverged from other Eukaryotes 2bybp… prior to ER and Golgi evolution Lack peroxisomes Ribosomes are 70S but NOT 80S 400 species (many more likely unknown parasites!) Three phyla: 1.Archaeamoebae/Pelobiontida (Pelomyxa) 2.Metamonada (Giardia) 3.Microsporidia

9 http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/pelomyxapalustris.html Uroid Glycogen body Vacuoles Pseudopodia Endosymbiotic bacteria Pelomyxa palustris Free-living in freshwater sediment (microaerophilic) Phagocytosis active At least 3 species of endosymbiont in each cell…two species are methanogenic archaeons! Anterior uroid (macropseudopodium) for amoeboid movement Smaller pseudopodia do not enlarge Accumulate glycogen reserves

10 http://www.btinternet.com/~stephen.durr/ pelomyxapalustris.html http://www.microscopy- uk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/protozoa/frame3.html Reproduction: Nuclei Daughter Amoeba Mitosis of nucleus Cytokinesis by furrowing What would you suggest has been a large component of this individuals phagocytosis diet?

11 Diplomonad intestinal parasite 2 nuclei in anterior of cell Motility 2 anterior flagella 4 ventral flagella 2 posterior flagella Ventral disc ridges provide adhesion to host Giardia lamblia http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/para/atlas/images/giardia-trph.jpg

12 http://www.nps.gov/olym/people/giardia.jpg Giardia lamblia Humans ingest water… cyst grows into trophozoite (shown)… parasite attaches to intestinal wall Parasite proliferates and, as digestion continues, are torn from lining leading to bloody diarrhea http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/para/atlas/images/giardia-cyst2.jpg Parasite cyst in feces of beaver released into watershed

13 Giardia lamblia http://atlas.or.kr/atlas/include/viewImg.html?uid=302 http://atlas.or.kr/donation/donation_files/DSCN1031.jpg Parasite cyst showing environmentally-stable wall of cyst, ectoplasm, endoplasm with 2 of 4 nuclei Trophozoites in various planes of section showing nuclei, flagellae, etc. Adhesive disc from ventral surface of trophozoite.

14 http://bioweb.usu.edu/emlab/Galleries/parasite s/color_microsporidia.jpg Nosema locustae Microsporidian parasite of locusts, grasshoppers and crickets http://entomology.unl.edu/images/beneficials/protozoan/nosema1.jpg http://www.agecology.com/productlogos/nol obait.gif Used as a form of biological control

15 http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/entomology/brooks/6a_d.jpg Nosema algerae Microsporidian parasite of mosquitoes Wet Mount Scanning EM Transmission EM

16 Nosema apis http://www.uni- saarland.de/fak8/hartmann/image s/fumagillin.jpg Control by Fumagillin-B from Aspergillus fumigatus http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pest&disease/slide39.htm Microsporidian parasite of honeybees Swollen intestinal system, loss of banding patterns Diarrhea, winterkill


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