Presentation on theme: "What is the English Civil War a response to?. Leading up to Civil War: Charles I Charles had dissolved Parliament, but then needed more $ for a costly."— Presentation transcript:
What is the English Civil War a response to?
Leading up to Civil War: Charles I Charles had dissolved Parliament, but then needed more $ for a costly war, so he was forced to eventually call Parliament back together. Parliament said you get money for war, we get Petition of Right Petition of Right Purpose – limit Charles power Cant collect taxes w/o consent of Parliament King can not imprison anyone w/o just cause Troops not housed in a private home Cant declare martial law unless country at war Due process is guaranteed. Charles is forced to sign it, but Petition failed to limit power Charles dissolved Parliament All of these actions lead to war
The English Civil War Begins in 1642 after Charles is angered by Parliaments attempts to curb his power and brings troops into the House of Commons Cavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads (Puritans and Parliament) Puritans favored Roundheadsthink about the religious roots of this war Roundheads were helped by Scots (Presbyterians) Oliver Cromwell- Roundhead General Roundhead troops were well trained and disciplined
Outcomes of the English Civil War Roundheads win several important battles and defeat the King in 1645 Charles I eventually tried for high treason and found guilty in January He was executed for this offense. Office of King was formally abolished on February 7, This sends shockwaves through Europe. Why?
Oliver Cromwell Cromwell declared England to be a commonwealth Dissolved parliament and established a protectorate Saw himself as Gods agent. Sound familiar? Called himself Lord Protector Ruled with an iron fist basically a military dictatorship, brutally conquered Catholic Scotland and Ireland Puritan prohibitions against drunkenness, theatre going, and dancing Died in 1658 and his son Richard took over for less than one year Monument to Oliver Cromwell, Houses of Parliament, London
1. Explain the difference between government by the people and government for the people. How can we relate this to Cromwell? 2. What role did Puritanism play in Cromwells commonwealth? 3. What good can we attribute to Cromwell? / What are his legacies? 4. Is there anything ironic about Cromwells rule as Lord Protector? 5. According to Firth, was Cromwell entirely a success or a failure? In what ways? 6. What do you think? Oliver Cromwell: A Farseeing, Fascinating Failure
Monarchy Restored Meanwhile…somewhere on the European continent…Charles II was wandering around after narrowly escaping capture in England A new, mostly Anglican Parliament was elected in 1660 and invited Charles II back from exile Merry Monarch
Why might have Parliament insisted on enacting so many new laws after the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy? In other words, in light of the Revolution, what will the demands of Parliament be as Charles II ascends the throne? Maintain religious identity of England (Charles may have leaned toward Catholicism) Limit monarchs power Increase individual rights Guarantee line of succession For example: Claredon Code- Church of England is state religion and only its members can serve in Parliament, attend universities, hold high positions in govt, etc.
The Glorious Revolution James II (Charles IIs brother) openly practices his Catholic religion. Why is James IIs religion problematic in the eyes of Parliament? Actions by James (related to religion) that were against the laws of Parliament. As a result, how does Parliament eventually respond? Parliament afraid of a Catholic heir to the throne invite William of Orange to invade England James flees to France - William and Mary (James eldest Protestant daughter) succeed to the throne in the bloodless Glorious Revolution
William III and Mary II English Bill of Rights Monarch could not raise taxes or keep an army without Parliaments approval. No laws could be suspended. Parliament will meet often. Guaranteed individual rights (i.e. Trial by jury, habeas corpus) No Catholic could become monarch (This was known as the Act of Settlement) Toleration Act- granted rights to most Protestant groups. No toleration for Catholics still. Act of Settlement put Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James I) in line for throne Why might William & Mary / Parliament have passed laws such as these? Mary has no heirs and her sister, Anne, comes to the throne next, beginning the use of a cabinet.
The Hanovers German family, continued the use of the cabinet. George I Son of Sophia of Hanover Spoke little English Relied heavily on his cabinet PM= Robert Walpole George II Continued the development of the office of Prime Minister George III King during the American Revolution Suffered from the hereditary disease, porphyria
Walpole Sir Robert Walpole dominated English politics from 1721 till 1742 based on his royal support, ability to handle the House of Commons and control over government patronage promoted peace at home and abroad spread trade from North America to India builds the military, especially the navy making Britain a world power because of Walpole, England became a military power with both religious and political liberty