Presentation on theme: "English Civil War Ch. 10.1 and 10.2 Vocabulary Divine right: monarchs derive their power from God and this power is absolute. –James I, who became king."— Presentation transcript:
English Civil War Ch. 10.1 and 10.2 Vocabulary Divine right: monarchs derive their power from God and this power is absolute. –James I, who became king after Elizabeth died childless, proclaimed his belief of divine right, in 1603. Martial law: temporary military rule with limitations on individual rights. –Set up by Charles I after he became king, in 1625.
Petition of Right: limits put on Charles I by the Parliament in 1628. –Forbidden to collect taxes; not imprison anyone without just cause; troops not housed in private home against will of people; not declare martial law unless during war. Commonwealth: state ruled by elected representatives. –Parliament in England set up a republic known as a commonwealth after they executed Charles I in 1649.
People: Charles I: Fought the Roundheads and Cromwell during the four years of civil conflict due to his absolute rule. Was executed after losing the battle. –After Charles I was executed England would never have an absolute monarchy again. Oliver Cromwell: A Puritan who was tired of King Charles I rule and went to battle with him for four years. Known as “Lord Protector”; was very strict with English society.
Ch. 10.2– A King Returns to the Throne Constitutional monarchy: form of government in which the monarch’s powers are limited by a constitution. –Parliament set up this form of monarchy once Charles II came back to England and was welcomed as their king in 1660. Habeas corpus: a law that stated a person could not be held in prison without just cause or without a trial.
Cabinet: a small group of advisers selected from the House of Commons. –Selected to lessen quarreling. –During George I reign, the cabinet became stronger, due to George’s lack of English speaking skills; he needed more help with running the country. Prime minister: head of the cabinet became known as the prime minister, who was also the Chief executive of the Parliament. Events / Ideas: 1665, plague killed 100,000 people and a fire destroyed much of London –Some people falsely accused Catholics. Glorious Revolution, peaceful transfer of power from James II to William III and Mary II.
Act of Settlement, 1701, forbid any Catholic from inheriting the English throne. Act of Union, 1707, uniting of Scotland and England forming Great Britain. How similar is Great Britain today to this time period?