Presentation on theme: "Restoration Legislation and the Glorious Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Restoration Legislation and the Glorious Revolution
Restoration Remember—Charles II returns from exile in 1660 Welcomed back with open arms by the English people Why?? Called the “Merry Monarch” What are some issues that Charles II will initially face?
Laws of Restoration Why might have Parliament insisted on enacting so many new laws after the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy? In other words, in light of the Revolution, what will the demands of Parliament be as Charles II ascends the throne? Maintain religious identity of England Limit monarch’s power Increase individual rights Guarantee line of succession
Reopened theaters and taverns Claredon Code- Church of England is state religion and only its members can serve in Parliament, attend universities, hold high positions in gov’t, etc. (Charles actually leaned more toward religious toleration) Magna Carta + Petition of Right- reasserted under Charles II to limit the power of the monarch. Laws of Restoration- Charles II
James II Charles II has no heirs, and throne passes to his Catholic brother James II James openly practices his Catholic religion. Why is James II’s religion problematic in the eyes of Parliament? Actions by James (related to religion) that were against the laws of Parliament. As a result, how does Parliament eventually respond?
The Glorious Revolution Parliament, angered by James II’s actions and the possibility that his Catholic son could become king, invite James’ daughter, Mary, and her husband William to overthrow the king. No battles or blood= Glorious Revolution Become William III and Mary II
Laws of Restoration- William and Mary English Bill of Rights Monarch could not raise taxes or keep an army without Parliament’s approval. No laws could be suspended. Parliament will meet often. Guaranteed individual rights (i.e. Trial by jury, habeas corpus) No Catholic could become monarch (This was known as the Act of Settlement) Toleration Act- granted rights to some Protestant groups. No toleration for Catholics still. Why might William & Mary / Parliament have passed laws such as these? Mary has no heirs and her sister, Anne, comes to the throne next.
Queen Anne 1707- Parliament unites England + Ireland + Scotland= Great Britain Needed a cabinet to help her rule— advisors from the majority party in Parliament Had no heirs—throne would be passed to the children of the granddaughter of James I (the Divine Right king)
The Hanovers German family, married into the English royal line, continued the use of the cabinet. George I Spoke little English Relied heavily on his cabinet PM= Robert Walpole George II Continued the development of the office of Prime Minister George III King during the American Revolution Suffered from the hereditary disease, porphyria
Absolute vs. Constitutional: The New Model President Absolute Monarch Constitutional Monarch (head of state) Head of gov’t Head of state (ceremonial duties) Head of state Prime minister is head of gov’t & leads Parliament