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Eighteenth Century England. Historical Background: English Civil War During the 17 th century, England witnessed the end of the Tudor dynasty and emergence.

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Presentation on theme: "Eighteenth Century England. Historical Background: English Civil War During the 17 th century, England witnessed the end of the Tudor dynasty and emergence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eighteenth Century England

2 Historical Background: English Civil War During the 17 th century, England witnessed the end of the Tudor dynasty and emergence of the Stuart monarchy The English Civil War ( ) will divide the country based on political allegiance to the king, Charles I, and the Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell The English Civil War culminated with the execution of King Charles I on charges of treason

3 A Return to Monarchy Following the civil war, England turned into a Puritan-run, military dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell for about 13 years The Stuarts were restored under Charles II and James II, but problems between the monarchs and Parliament continued

4 The Glorious Revolution of 1688 Parliament invited William III of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, the daughter of English king James II William and Mary ascended to throne in a bloodless revolution Parliament gained the upper hand in the battle for power between the monarchy and the legislative branch

5 Queen Anne (r ) King William III died childless and throne passed to Anne (James II’s daughter) Devout Anglican Had 16 children all died—no heir to throne Act of Settlement will pass throne onto the House of Hanover (Germany) through distant relation to the English throne – Will ensure Protestant rule

6 Achievements of the Queen Act of Union (1707)— created a unified Scotland and England—common gov’t, but separate religion Overall, Queen Anne is not considered a great ruler of England – Considered too slow-witted and semi-invalid

7 The Hanoverian Dynasty Kings and queens will rule from 1714 to 1901 The Hanoverians rule as Kings-in-Parliament meaning that to rule England, the king must have the support of the majority of Parliament The time of the Hanoverians is marked more by the work of the newly created Prime Ministers that serve as a vital link between the Parliament and monarchy

8 The Age of Walpole Sir Robert Walpole created the position of prime minister dominated English politics from 1721 till 1742 based on his royal support, ability to handle the House of Commons and control over government patronage – promoted peace at home and abroad – spread trade from North America to India – builds the military, especially the navy making Britain a world power the results of Walpole is England becomes a military power with both religious and political liberty

9 Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), far left, is shown talking with the Speaker of the House of Commons. Walpole, who dominated British political life from 1721 to 1742, is considered the first prime minister of Britain. Mansell/TimePix/Getty Images, Inc.

10 British Empire in mid-18 th century

11 Overseas Woes The British Empire suffered a major blow when it lost the North American colonies in the American War for Independence ( ) – King George III remembered as the king who lost “America”

12 American victory sparked renewed hopes of the Irish to break the chains of British rule Catholic Irish tried to revolt in 1689 with the ousted James II as their leader Newly crowned William III landed in Ireland to crush the uprising

13 Ireland Issues Ireland was primarily Catholic, but under the control of Protestant England Irish Catholics were barred from gov’t office, parliament, or voting Not until 1778—1783 will Irish Catholics will be granted certain rights like property In 1800, the Act of Union will join Ireland to Britain as the United Kingdom – Independence will come later in the 20 th century

14 Internal Strife in Scotland Presbyterian members of Scotland offered the throne to William and Mary in 1689 Certain Catholic clans in Scotland emerged to defend James II’s claim to the throne Internal fighting and massacres between supporters of James II and supporters of William and Mary will persist from 1689 to 1746 when the final clans supporting the Stuarts are routed


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