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Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS. Sociology, Tenth Edition SOCIAL GROUP A social group is defined as Two or more people, Who identify with.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS. Sociology, Tenth Edition SOCIAL GROUP A social group is defined as Two or more people, Who identify with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS

2 Sociology, Tenth Edition SOCIAL GROUP A social group is defined as Two or more people, Who identify with one another, And who interact with one another

3 Sociology, Tenth Edition NOT QUITE A SOCIAL GROUP Category –People with common status Crowd –Temporary cluster of people –A group can have temporal status There are times when a crowd can become a group and then a crowd once more A large gathering of people at a football game A crowd that begins to riot may be considered a group

4 Sociology, Tenth Edition PRIMARY GROUPS Traits –Small –Personal orientation –Enduring Primary relationships –First group experienced in life –Irreplaceable –Security Assistance of all kinds –Emotional to financial

5 Sociology, Tenth Edition SECONDARY GROUPS Traits –Large membership –Goal or activity orientation –Formal and polite Secondary relationships –Weak emotional ties between persons –Short term Examples –Co-workers –Political organizations

6 Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUP LEADERSHIP Two roles: –Instrumental Task oriented –Expressive People oriented Three decision making styles: –Authoritarian Leader makes decisions; Compliance from members –Democratic Member involvement –Laissez-faire Mainly let group function on its own

7 Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUP CONFORMITY STUDIES Asch’s research –Willingness to COMPROME our own judgments –Line experiment Milgram’s research –Role authority plays –Following orders Janis’ research –Negative side of groupthink Lack of objectivity

8 Sociology, Tenth Edition REFERENCE GROUPS Groups act as point of reference points in making evaluative and decisions Stouffer’s research –We compare ourselves in relation to specific reference groups INGROUPS and OUTGROUPS –Loyalty to INGROUP –Opposition to OUTGROUPS

9 Sociology, Tenth Edition GROUP SIZE The dyad –A two member group –Very intimate, but unstable given its size The triad –A three member group –More stable than a dyad and more types of interaction is possible

10 Sociology, Tenth Edition Figure 7-2 Group Size and Relationships

11 Sociology, Tenth Edition SOCIAL DIVERSITY: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER Large groups turn inward –Members have relationships between themselves Heterogeneous groups turn outward –Diverse membership promotes interaction with outsiders Social equality promotes contact –If groups are equal in standing, then members of all backgrounds are more likely to associate with each other Physical boundaries create social boundaries –If segregation of groups takes place, the chances for contact are limited Networks –Web of weak social ties, people we know of or who know of us

12 Sociology, Tenth Edition FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS Large secondary groups, organized to achieve goals efficiently Utilitarian –Material rewards for members Normative –Voluntary organizations –Ties to personal morality Coercive –Punishment or treatment –Total institutions

13 Sociology, Tenth Edition Figure 7.3 Volunteer Work among First- Year College Students,

14 Sociology, Tenth Edition BUREAUCRACY Rational model designed to perform complex tasks efficiently Max Weber’s six elements to promote organizational efficiency –Specialization of duties –Hierarchy of offices –Rules and regulations –Technical competence –Impersonality –Formal, written communications

15 Sociology, Tenth Edition PROBLEMS OF BUREAUCRACIES Bureaucratic alienation –Potential to dehumanize individuals Bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism –Preoccupation with rules, interferes with meeting goals Bureaucratic inertia –Perpetuation of the organization Oligarchy –Rule of the many by the few

16 Sociology, Tenth Edition SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or large organization 1.Identify tasks and time needed for tasks 2.Analyze to perform tasks more efficiently 3.Provide incentives for workers efficiency

17 Sociology, Tenth Edition NEW CHALLENGES TO FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS Race and gender –Pattern of exclusion –“Female advantage” Japanese organizations –Value cooperation –Organizational loyalty Changing nature of work –Information based organizations –Creative autonomy, competitive work teams, flatter organization, and create flexibility

18 Sociology, Tenth Edition Figure 7-5 Two Organizational Models

19 Sociology, Tenth Edition McDONALDIZATION OF SOCIETY Efficiency –Do it quickly Calculability –Do it according to plan Uniformity and predictability –Leave nothing to chance Control through automation –Humans are most unreliable factor Ritzer’s criticisms


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