SOCIAL INTERACTION & GROUPS, ORGANIZATIONS, BEAURACRACIES
Consists of two or more individuals purposefully relating to each other
directed toward a goal that people hope to achieve (even if the goal is as nebulous as “having a good time”) takes place in a social context that includes cultural norms and rules governing the situation and setting
Non-verbal communication refers to interactions using facial expressions, the head, eye contact, body posture, gestures, touch, walk, status symbols and personal space
Social status refers to positions you hold in the social world An individuals social status defines how she interacts with others and how other react to her in a specific situation…….
Ascribed status Achieved status Master status
Every status position in your social network carries with it certain behaviors and obligations.. ….. the expected behaviors, rights and obligations of the status is what is called a “role”……….
Characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation Charles Horton Cooley
“They are primary in several senses, but chiefly in that they are fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual”
the result of intimate association is a certain fusion- of individualities in a common whole, so that one’s very self is the common life and purpose of the group >WE
family, playgroup of children, neighborhood or community group of elders >the “nursery of human nature”
As humans, we have an intense need for face-to-face interaction that generates feelings of self- esteem. primary groups offer a sense of belonging and are uniquely equipped to meet this basic need.
Larger, more anonymous, more formal and more impersonal than PRIMARY GROUPS
Secondary groups are based on some interest or activity, and their members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statuses, such as president, manager, worker or student >examples: college class, factory, political party, a professional association (ASA)
Contemporary society could not function without secondary groups as they are part of how we get our education, make a living and spend our money/leisure time
Often secondary groups fail to satisfy our needs for intimate association, as a result, secondary groups tend to break down into primary groups
group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest
an aspect of voluntary associations is that the leaders often grow distant from members and become convinced that only the inner circle can be trusted to make the groups important decisions.
Robert Michels coined the term “the iron law of oligarchy” in 1911 to refer to how organizations come to be dominated by a self- perpetuating elite
the majority of members of an institution are passive……an inner circle keeps itself in power by passing the leadership positions from one member of this inner group to another >people can be excluded from leadership because they don’t represent the inner circle’s values-or background
Elements of bureaucratic authority: 1. Fixed and official jurisdictional areas ordered by rules 2. Hierarchical Authority derived from legitimacy or force 3. Labor is organized and regulated
-Bureaucracy is a modern phenomenon -Bureaucracy is a product of capitalism
The five characteristics of bureaucracy are: 1. regulated by rules and official duties 2. a hierarchy with a system of super- and subordination 3. management of office and personnel based on written documents and general rules 4. specialized office management based on expert training 5. official activity demanding full working capacity of the official
-fast food restaurants account for 40% of 6 million people employed at restaurants -fast food restaurant likely to be first employer >1 in 15 workers started at McDonalds >1 in 8 Americans has worked at McDonalds at some time in life
McDonaldization >simple tasks performed efficiently >time performing tasks in calculated predictable work >non-human technologies employed to control and reduce workers >dehumanization leading to high turnover
McDonalds jobs prepare workers for workplace How are customers taught to behave through McDonaldization? >bringing the customer into the labor process >internalization of norms and values >normalization