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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL INTERACTION & GROUPS, ORGANIZATIONS, BEAURACRACIES."— Presentation transcript:


2  Consists of two or more individuals purposefully relating to each other

3  directed toward a goal that people hope to achieve (even if the goal is as nebulous as “having a good time”)  takes place in a social context that includes cultural norms and rules governing the situation and setting

4  Non-verbal communication refers to interactions using facial expressions, the head, eye contact, body posture, gestures, touch, walk, status symbols and personal space

5  Social status refers to positions you hold in the social world  An individuals social status defines how she interacts with others and how other react to her in a specific situation…….

6  Ascribed status  Achieved status  Master status

7  Every status position in your social network carries with it certain behaviors and obligations.. …..  the expected behaviors, rights and obligations of the status is what is called a “role”……….


9  Characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation  Charles Horton Cooley

10  “They are primary in several senses, but chiefly in that they are fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual”

11  the result of intimate association is a certain fusion- of individualities in a common whole, so that one’s very self is the common life and purpose of the group  >WE

12  family, playgroup of children, neighborhood or community group of elders  >the “nursery of human nature”

13  As humans, we have an intense need for face-to-face interaction that generates feelings of self- esteem.  primary groups offer a sense of belonging and are uniquely equipped to meet this basic need.

14  Larger, more anonymous, more formal and more impersonal than PRIMARY GROUPS

15  Secondary groups are based on some interest or activity, and their members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statuses, such as president, manager, worker or student  >examples: college class, factory, political party, a professional association (ASA)

16  Contemporary society could not function without secondary groups as they are part of how we get our education, make a living and spend our money/leisure time

17  Often secondary groups fail to satisfy our needs for intimate association, as a result, secondary groups tend to break down into primary groups

18  group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest

19  an aspect of voluntary associations is that the leaders often grow distant from members and become convinced that only the inner circle can be trusted to make the groups important decisions.

20  Robert Michels coined the term “the iron law of oligarchy” in 1911 to refer to how organizations come to be dominated by a self- perpetuating elite

21  the majority of members of an institution are passive……an inner circle keeps itself in power by passing the leadership positions from one member of this inner group to another  >people can be excluded from leadership because they don’t represent the inner circle’s values-or background



24  Elements of bureaucratic authority:  1. Fixed and official jurisdictional areas ordered by rules  2. Hierarchical Authority derived from legitimacy or force  3. Labor is organized and regulated

25  -Bureaucracy is a modern phenomenon  -Bureaucracy is a product of capitalism

26 The five characteristics of bureaucracy are:  1. regulated by rules and official duties  2. a hierarchy with a system of super- and subordination  3. management of office and personnel based on written documents and general rules  4. specialized office management based on expert training  5. official activity demanding full working capacity of the official

27  -fast food restaurants account for 40% of 6 million people employed at restaurants  -fast food restaurant likely to be first employer  >1 in 15 workers started at McDonalds  >1 in 8 Americans has worked at McDonalds at some time in life

28  McDonaldization  >simple tasks performed efficiently  >time performing tasks in calculated predictable work  >non-human technologies employed to control and reduce workers  >dehumanization leading to high turnover

29  McDonalds jobs prepare workers for workplace  How are customers taught to behave through McDonaldization?  >bringing the customer into the labor process  >internalization of norms and values  >normalization


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