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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

2 The Appendicular Skeleton
Figure 8–1

3 The Appendicular Skeleton
Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles

4 The Pectoral Girdle Figure 8–2a

5 The Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle
Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement

6 The Pectoral Girdle Consists of:
2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

7 The Clavicles Figure 8–2b, c

8 The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones
Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

9 The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles
Articulate with arm and collarbone

10 The Scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa Figure 8–3a

11 Structures of the Scapula
Posterior surface Figure 8–3c

12 The Upper Limbs Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands
Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

13 The Humerus Figure 8–4

14 The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone
Articulates with the pectoral girdle

15 The Forearm Figure 8–5

16 The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones:
ulna (medial) radius (lateral)

17 Ulna: The Olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow
Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus

18 The Wrist Figure 8–6

19 The Wrist 8 carpal bones: 4 proximal carpal bones
4 distal carpal bones allow wrist to bend and twist

20 Metacarpal Bones The 5 long bones of the hand
Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges

21 Phalanges of the Hands Pollex (thumb): Fingers:
2 phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers: 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

22 The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7

23 The Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae)
Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis

24 Os Coxae Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium (articulates with sacrum)
ischium pubis

25 The Acetabulum Also called the hip socket
Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the os coxae Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)

26 The Pelvis Figure 8–8

27 The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx
Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

28 Divisions of the Pelvis
Figure 8–9

29 Divisions of the Pelvis
True pelvis: encloses pelvic cavity False pelvis: blades of ilium above arcuate line

30 The True Pelvis Pelvic brim: upper edge of true pelvis
encloses pelvic inlet

31 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis
Figure 8–10

32 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis
smoother lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments

33 Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing
Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100°) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards

34 The Lower Limbs Functions: Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg
weight bearing motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

35 Bones of the Lower Limbs
Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)

36 The Femur The longest, heaviest bone Figure 8–11

37 The Patella Figure 8–12

38 The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone
Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament

39 The Tibia Figure 8–13

40 The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight
Larger than fibula Medial to fibula

41 The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia
Lateral to tibia

42 The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones
Figure 8–14a

43 Bones of the Ankle Talus: Calcaneus (heel bone): Cuboid bone:
carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon Cuboid bone: articulates with calcaneus

44 Feet: Metatarsal Bones
5 long bones of foot Numbered I–V, medial to lateral Articulate with toes

45 Feet: Phalanges Phalanges: Hallux: Other 4 toes: bones of the toes
big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

46 Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another
Figure 8–14b

47 Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics:
muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) body size

48 Male and Female Skeletons
Table 8–1

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