Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle Describe and identify the bones of the pelvic girdle

2 Appendicular Skeleton
Includes the bones of the upper limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle. Includes the bones of the lower limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pelvic girdle.


4 Pectoral Girdle scapula – “shoulder blade”
-(triangular flat bone) articulates with humerus of arm at the glenoid fossa clavicle – “ collar bone" -flat bone articulates with the acromion process of scapula and the manubrium of the sternum, thus forming the only bony link with the axial skeleton and pectoral appendicular skeleton


6 Scapula Thin triangular flat bone that forms the bulk of the shoulder
Articulates with the humerus of the arm at the glenoid fossa Articulates with the clavicle at the acromion process

7 Scapula landmarks Supraspinous and infraspinous fossae
Subscapular fossa Acromion Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Lateral and medial border


9 Clavicle landmarks Acromial end Sternal end Conoid tubercle
Costoclavicular tuberosity

10 The clavicle

11 The Upper Limb Consists of 30 bones
Grouped into bones of the arm, forearm and hand Arm = Humerus Forearm = Radius and Ulna Hand = Carpals (8), metacarpals (5) and phalanges (5)

12 “Arm or Brachium”

13 Humerus landmarks Head and body of humerus
Greater and Lesser tubercles Anatomical neck and Surgical neck Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges Medial and lateral epicondyle Olecranon and radial fossa Coronoid process Deltoid tuberosity Capitulum Trochlea

14 Forearm “antebrachium”
Consists of the Radius (lateral) and Ulna (medial). Both are connected along their length by a ligament (interosseous membrane)

15 Radius landmarks Head, neck and shaft Radial tuberosity Ulnar notch
Styloid process Nutrient foramen


17 Ulna landmarks Olecranon process Coronoid process Trochlear notch
Radial notch Head of the ulna Styloid process of ulna



20 The Hand Consists of: Carpals (8) “wrist” Metacarpals (5) “palm”
Phalanges (5) “fingers”

21 Carpal bones Eight bones makeup the wrist

22 Carpal bones

23 Metacarpals and Phalanges
These bones are not named individually but are numbered 1-5. The thumb “pollex” is number 1. They are all long bones The base of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones at their base and the phalanges at their head. The phalanges consist of a proximal, middle and distal phalanx in all but the thumb .

24 Metacarpals and Phalanges

25 The Pelvic Girdle The “hips” form a much more solid and stable connection for the lower limbs to the axial skeleton than the pectoral girdle is to the upper limbs. The pelvic girdle is formed by the coxal bones (a.k.a. hip bones, os coxae) which fuse posteriorly with the sacrum. The coxal bones are formed by the fusion of three separate bones ( ilium, ischium and pubis) during growth.


27 “Os Coxae” Hip bones Formed by the fusion of three bones
-1. ilium, 2. ischium, and 3. pubis Attaches to the lower limb and spine at sacroiliac joint Supports the pelvic organs or viscera Attached to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments


29 Os coxae landmarks Iliac crest
Anterior superior and ant. inferior iliac spine Posterior superior and post. inferior iliac spine Greater and lesser sciatic notch Iliac fossa Ischial spine and tuberosity; ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior and inferior ramus of pubis Pubic symphysis and pubic arch Acetabulum

30 Male vs Female Os coxae Significant differences exist between the male and female pelvis. ♀ pelvic outlet is enlarged due to in part greater separation of ischial spines ♀ less curvature of sacrum and coccyx which in males ♂ arcs into pelvic outlet ♀ wider more circular pelvic inlet ♀ relatively broad, low pelvis A broader pubic angle in ♀ between pubic bones > 100°

31 Male Female

32 True vs. False pelvis False pelvis = area within entire pelvic girdle
True pelvis = area below pelvic brim

33 Lower limb Consists of: Femur “Thigh” = hip to the knee
Tibia and fibula “Leg” = knee to foot Foot


35 Femur “Thigh” landmarks
Longest, strongest, largest bone in body Head Neck Greater and lesser trochanter Medial and lateral condyle Medial and lateral epicondyle Linea aspera

36 Patella “knee cap” landmarks
Base Apex Articular surfaces

37 Lower leg technically the distance between the knee and ankle
Bones of the leg: tibia (shin bone) and fibula (lateral leg bone) Consists of the: Tibia (shin bone) Fibula Interosseuos membrane connects tibia and fibula along their length


39 Tibia landmarks Medial and lateral condyle Tibial tuberosity
Medial malleolus (medial bulge of ankle) Anterior border (crest) is the shin

40 Distal End of Tibia


42 Fibula landmarks Fibula is lateral bone of the leg Head
Lateral malleolus (lateral bulge of ankle)


44 The foot Includes the bones of the; -Tarsus -Metatarsus Phalanges
Functions -support of the body -lever for walking or running


46 Tarsal bones Talus Calcaneous

47 Metatarsals and Phalanges
Are all long bones Metatarsals numbered 1-5 Phalanges consist of proximal, middle and distal bones in all but big toe Big toe or great toe is Hallux

48 Tarsal bones (Ankle)

Download ppt "Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google