Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle Describe and identify the bones of the pelvic girdle

2 Appendicular Skeleton Includes the bones of the upper limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle. Includes the bones of the lower limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pelvic girdle.

3

4 Pectoral Girdle scapula – “shoulder blade” -(triangular flat bone) articulates with humerus of arm at the glenoid fossa clavicle – “ collar bone" -flat bone articulates with the acromion process of scapula and the manubrium of the sternum, thus forming the only bony link with the axial skeleton and pectoral appendicular skeleton

5

6 Scapula Thin triangular flat bone that forms the bulk of the shoulder Articulates with the humerus of the arm at the glenoid fossa Articulates with the clavicle at the acromion process

7 Scapula landmarks Supraspinous and infraspinous fossae Subscapular fossa Acromion Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Lateral and medial border

8

9 Clavicle landmarks Acromial end Sternal end Conoid tubercle Costoclavicular tuberosity

10 The clavicle

11 The Upper Limb Consists of 30 bones Grouped into bones of the arm, forearm and hand Arm = Humerus Forearm = Radius and Ulna Hand = Carpals (8), metacarpals (5) and phalanges (5)

12 “Arm or Brachium”

13 Humerus landmarks Head and body of humerus Greater and Lesser tubercles Anatomical neck and Surgical neck Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges Medial and lateral epicondyle Olecranon and radial fossa Coronoid process Deltoid tuberosity Capitulum Trochlea

14 Forearm “antebrachium” Consists of the Radius (lateral) and Ulna (medial). Both are connected along their length by a ligament (interosseous membrane)

15 Radius landmarks Head, neck and shaft Radial tuberosity Ulnar notch Styloid process Nutrient foramen

16

17 Ulna landmarks Olecranon process Coronoid process Trochlear notch Radial notch Head of the ulna Styloid process of ulna

18

19

20 The Hand Consists of: Carpals (8) “wrist” Metacarpals (5) “palm” Phalanges (5) “fingers”

21 Carpal bones Eight bones makeup the wrist

22 Carpal bones

23 Metacarpals and Phalanges These bones are not named individually but are numbered 1-5. The thumb “pollex” is number 1. They are all long bones The base of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones at their base and the phalanges at their head. The phalanges consist of a proximal, middle and distal phalanx in all but the thumb.

24 Metacarpals and Phalanges

25 The Pelvic Girdle The “hips” form a much more solid and stable connection for the lower limbs to the axial skeleton than the pectoral girdle is to the upper limbs. The pelvic girdle is formed by the coxal bones (a.k.a. hip bones, os coxae) which fuse posteriorly with the sacrum. The coxal bones are formed by the fusion of three separate bones ( ilium, ischium and pubis) during growth.

26

27 “Os Coxae” Hip bones Formed by the fusion of three bones -1. ilium, 2. ischium, and 3. pubis Attaches to the lower limb and spine at sacroiliac joint Supports the pelvic organs or viscera Attached to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments

28

29 Os coxae landmarks Iliac crest Anterior superior and ant. inferior iliac spine Posterior superior and post. inferior iliac spine Greater and lesser sciatic notch Iliac fossa Ischial spine and tuberosity; ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior and inferior ramus of pubis Pubic symphysis and pubic arch Acetabulum

30 Male vs Female Os coxae Significant differences exist between the male and female pelvis. –♀ pelvic outlet is enlarged due to in part greater separation of ischial spines –♀ less curvature of sacrum and coccyx which in males ♂ arcs into pelvic outlet –♀ wider more circular pelvic inlet –♀ relatively broad, low pelvis –A broader pubic angle in ♀ between pubic bones > 100°

31 Male Female

32 True vs. False pelvis False pelvis = area within entire pelvic girdle True pelvis = area below pelvic brim

33 Lower limb Consists of: Femur “Thigh” = hip to the knee Tibia and fibula “Leg” = knee to foot Foot

34

35 Femur “Thigh” landmarks Longest, strongest, largest bone in body Head Neck Greater and lesser trochanter Medial and lateral condyle Medial and lateral epicondyle Linea aspera

36 Patella “knee cap” landmarks Base Apex Articular surfaces

37 Lower leg technically the distance between the knee and ankle Bones of the leg: tibia (shin bone) and fibula (lateral leg bone) Consists of the: Tibia (shin bone) Fibula Interosseuos membrane connects tibia and fibula along their length

38

39 Tibia landmarks Medial and lateral condyle Tibial tuberosity Medial malleolus (medial bulge of ankle) Anterior border (crest) is the shin

40 Distal End of Tibia

41

42 Fibula landmarks Fibula is lateral bone of the leg Head Lateral malleolus (lateral bulge of ankle)

43

44 The foot Includes the bones of the; -Tarsus -Metatarsus Phalanges Functions -support of the body -lever for walking or running

45

46 Tarsal bones Talus Calcaneous

47 Metatarsals and Phalanges Are all long bones Metatarsals numbered 1-5 Phalanges consist of proximal, middle and distal bones in all but big toe Big toe or great toe is Hallux

48 Tarsal bones (Ankle)


Download ppt "Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google