Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives: List the bones of the appendicular skeleton Describe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdle Describe and identify the bones of the pelvic girdle
Appendicular Skeleton Includes the bones of the upper limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle. Includes the bones of the lower limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pelvic girdle.
Pectoral Girdle scapula – “shoulder blade” -(triangular flat bone) articulates with humerus of arm at the glenoid fossa clavicle – “ collar bone" -flat bone articulates with the acromion process of scapula and the manubrium of the sternum, thus forming the only bony link with the axial skeleton and pectoral appendicular skeleton
Humerus landmarks Head and body of humerus Greater and Lesser tubercles Anatomical neck and Surgical neck Medial and lateral supracondylar ridges Medial and lateral epicondyle Olecranon and radial fossa Coronoid process Deltoid tuberosity Capitulum Trochlea
Forearm “antebrachium” Consists of the Radius (lateral) and Ulna (medial). Both are connected along their length by a ligament (interosseous membrane)
Radius landmarks Head, neck and shaft Radial tuberosity Ulnar notch Styloid process Nutrient foramen
Metacarpals and Phalanges These bones are not named individually but are numbered 1-5. The thumb “pollex” is number 1. They are all long bones The base of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones at their base and the phalanges at their head. The phalanges consist of a proximal, middle and distal phalanx in all but the thumb.
The Pelvic Girdle The “hips” form a much more solid and stable connection for the lower limbs to the axial skeleton than the pectoral girdle is to the upper limbs. The pelvic girdle is formed by the coxal bones (a.k.a. hip bones, os coxae) which fuse posteriorly with the sacrum. The coxal bones are formed by the fusion of three separate bones ( ilium, ischium and pubis) during growth.
“Os Coxae” Hip bones Formed by the fusion of three bones -1. ilium, 2. ischium, and 3. pubis Attaches to the lower limb and spine at sacroiliac joint Supports the pelvic organs or viscera Attached to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments
Os coxae landmarks Iliac crest Anterior superior and ant. inferior iliac spine Posterior superior and post. inferior iliac spine Greater and lesser sciatic notch Iliac fossa Ischial spine and tuberosity; ramus of ischium Obturator foramen Superior and inferior ramus of pubis Pubic symphysis and pubic arch Acetabulum
Male vs Female Os coxae Significant differences exist between the male and female pelvis. –♀ pelvic outlet is enlarged due to in part greater separation of ischial spines –♀ less curvature of sacrum and coccyx which in males ♂ arcs into pelvic outlet –♀ wider more circular pelvic inlet –♀ relatively broad, low pelvis –A broader pubic angle in ♀ between pubic bones > 100°
Femur “Thigh” landmarks Longest, strongest, largest bone in body Head Neck Greater and lesser trochanter Medial and lateral condyle Medial and lateral epicondyle Linea aspera
Patella “knee cap” landmarks Base Apex Articular surfaces
Lower leg technically the distance between the knee and ankle Bones of the leg: tibia (shin bone) and fibula (lateral leg bone) Consists of the: Tibia (shin bone) Fibula Interosseuos membrane connects tibia and fibula along their length