Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton Course objectives:List the bones of the appendicular skeletonDescribe and identify the bones of the pectoral girdleDescribe and identify the bones of the pelvic girdle
2 Appendicular Skeleton Includes the bones of the upper limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pectoral girdle.Includes the bones of the lower limb and their attachments to the axial skeleton at the pelvic girdle.
4 Pectoral Girdle scapula – “shoulder blade” -(triangular flat bone) articulates with humerus of arm at the glenoid fossaclavicle – “ collar bone"-flat bone articulates with the acromion process of scapula and the manubrium of the sternum, thus forming the only bony link with the axial skeleton and pectoral appendicular skeleton
13 Humerus landmarks Head and body of humerus Greater and Lesser tuberclesAnatomical neck and Surgical neckMedial and lateral supracondylar ridgesMedial and lateral epicondyleOlecranon and radial fossaCoronoid processDeltoid tuberosityCapitulumTrochlea
14 Forearm “antebrachium” Consists of the Radius (lateral) and Ulna (medial).Both are connected along their length by a ligament (interosseous membrane)
23 Metacarpals and Phalanges These bones are not named individually but are numbered 1-5.The thumb “pollex” is number 1.They are all long bonesThe base of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones at their base and the phalanges at their head.The phalanges consist of a proximal, middle and distal phalanx in all but the thumb .
25 The Pelvic GirdleThe “hips” form a much more solid and stable connection for the lower limbs to the axial skeleton than the pectoral girdle is to the upper limbs.The pelvic girdle is formed by the coxal bones (a.k.a. hip bones, os coxae) which fuse posteriorly with the sacrum.The coxal bones are formed by the fusion of three separate bones ( ilium, ischium and pubis) during growth.
27 “Os Coxae” Hip bones Formed by the fusion of three bones -1. ilium, 2. ischium, and 3. pubisAttaches to the lower limb and spine at sacroiliac jointSupports the pelvic organs or visceraAttached to the axial skeleton by strong ligaments
29 Os coxae landmarks Iliac crest Anterior superior and ant. inferior iliac spinePosterior superior and post. inferior iliac spineGreater and lesser sciatic notchIliac fossaIschial spine and tuberosity; ramus of ischiumObturator foramenSuperior and inferior ramus of pubisPubic symphysis and pubic archAcetabulum
30 Male vs Female Os coxaeSignificant differences exist between the male and female pelvis.♀ pelvic outlet is enlarged due to in part greater separation of ischial spines♀ less curvature of sacrum and coccyx which in males ♂ arcs into pelvic outlet♀ wider more circular pelvic inlet♀ relatively broad, low pelvisA broader pubic angle in ♀ between pubic bones > 100°
37 Lower leg technically the distance between the knee and ankle Bones of the leg: tibia (shin bone) and fibula (lateral leg bone)Consists of the: Tibia (shin bone)FibulaInterosseuos membrane connects tibia and fibula along their length