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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

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1 Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton
BIO 210 Lab Instructor: Dr. Rebecca Clarke

2 Appendicular Skeleton
Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles Pectoral (shoulder) Pelvic

3 Appendicular Skeleton
Figure 8–1

4 Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle
Positions shoulder joints Connects the arms to the body Provides base for muscle attachment Helps move upper limbs

5 Pectoral Girdle Figure 8–2a

6 Pectoral Girdle Consists of:
2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with axial skeleton only at the manubrium (clavicle articulations)

7 Clavicle Also called collarbone Long, S-shaped bone
Originates at manubrium (sternal end) Articulates with scapula (acromial end) Relatively fragile so fractures common

8 Clavicle Sternal End: Acromial End: Square, flat surface
Articulates with manubrium; only ones between axial skeleton and pectoral girdle Acromial End: Flatter, broader end Articulates with acromion of scapula Figure 8–2b, c

9 Scapula Also called shoulder blade Broad, flat triangle
Articulates with arm and collarbone Skeletal muscles support/position  Extreme mobility Not much strength

10 Scapula: Posterior Surface
Body Broad, flat, triangular area Has 3 borders/ margins Superior Medial Lateral Figure 8–3c

11 Scapula: Posterior Surface
Spine Large ridge across posterior surface Shoulder blade Supraspinous fossa Depression superior to spine Infraspinous fossa Depression inferior to spine Figure 8–3c

12 Scapula: Posterior Surface
Acromion Large, posterior extension at lateral end of spine Articulates with clavicle (acromial end) Figure 8–3c

13 Scapula: Lateral View Glenoid fossa (cavity)
Cup-shaped, lateral depression Articulates with humerus Forms shoulder joint Figure 8–3c

14 Scapula: Lateral View Coracoid process
Smaller, anterior projection superior to glenoid cavity Near clavicle vs coronoid process on mandible near nose) Figure 8–3c

15 Scapula: Anterior Surface
Subscapular fossa Depression on smooth, anterior side of body Figure 8–3a

16 Bones of the Upper Limbs
Brachium (arm) Antebrachium (forearm) Ulna Radius Carpals (wrist) Metacarpals (hand) Phalanges (fingers)

17 Humerus Only bone in brachium (arm) Extends from scapula to elbow
Articulates with pectoral girdle on proximal end (head) – with glenoid fossa of scapula on distal end – with radius and ulna (bones of antebrachium)

18 Humerus Head Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular groove
Large, ball-shaped structure on proximal end Greater tubercle Larger, rounded projection on lateral/posterior surface of epiphysis Lesser tubercle Smaller projection on medial/anterior surface Intertubercular groove Separates tubercles Figure 8–4

19 Humerus Anatomical neck Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity
Narrow groove between base of head and tubercles Margin of joint capsule Surgical neck At metaphysis Where fractures often occur Deltoid tuberosity Rough ridge on-anterior surface of shaft Where deltoid muscle attaches Figure 8–4

20 Humerus Condyle = rounded projection for muscle attachment
Distal epiphysis where humerus articulates with radius and ulna “Knuckles” on anterior surface of humerus Figure 8–4

21 Humerus Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle
More prominent than lateral one Trochlea (“pulley” or “spool”) In center of condyle (middle “knuckle) Where trochlear notch of ulna rotates during forearm flexion Capitulum Forms a “cap” over the radius Figure 8–4

22 Humerus Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa On anterior surface
Articulates with coronoid process of ulna Olecranon fossa On posterior surface Articulates with olecranon of ulna Figure 8–4

23 Antebrachium (Forearm)
Consists of 2 long bones: Ulna (medial) Radius (lateral) “Rotates” Site of radial pulse Figure 8–5

24 Ulna Olecranon (process)
Large, curved projection (like cobra head) on proximal end “U” for ulna Articulates in olecranon fossa of humerus Superior lip of trochlear notch Point of elbow Figure 8–5

25 Ulna Trochlear notch Coronoid process
Anterior curved surface of proximal epiphysis Articulates with trochlea of humerus Coronoid process Inferior lip of trochlear notch Articulates in coronoid fossa of humerus Figure 8–5

26 Ulna Head Styloid process Much smaller, distal epiphysis (near wrist)
Articulates with radium and carpal (wrist) bones Styloid process Medial pointed extension at distal epiphysis On posterior, lateral surface of head Figure 8–5

27 Ulna: Articulations with the Humerus
Forearm extended: Olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed: Coronoid process enters coronoid fossa

28 Radius Head Neck Radial tuberosity Disc-shaped proximal epiphysis
Articulates with humerus Neck Narrow region between head and tuberosity Radial tuberosity Structure at proximal end of diaphysis below neck Marks attachment site of biceps brachii muscle Figure 8–5

29 Radius Shaft Styloid process Curves and broadens
Distal portion much larger than distal portion of ulna Styloid process Lateral pointed extension at distal epiphysis Stabilizes wrist joint Figure 8–5

30 Carpal Bones Allow wrist to bend and twist 8 bones
“Sam likes to push the toy car hard.”

31 Carpal Bones Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid
Capitate Hamate

32 Wrist and Hand Bones Figure 8–6

33 Metacarpal Bones 5 long bones of the hand
Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges

34 Phalanges (Phalanx=singular)
Finger bones I (lateral) Pollex (thumb): 2 phalanges (proximal, distal) II - V 3 phalanges (proximal, medial or middle, distal)

35 Pelvic Girdle Functions
Weight-bearing Locomotion Bones more massive than those of pectoral girdle Strong to bear body weight

36 Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hip bones (coxal bones or pelvic bones)
Each hip bone is made up of 3 fused bones: Ilium (articulates with sacrum) Ischium Pubis

37 Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7

38 Pelvic Girdle: Ilium Largest hip bone Superior part of coxae
Fused to ischium (posteriorly) and pubis (anteriorly) Articulates with sacrum – attaches pelvic girdle to axial skeleton Figure 8–7

39 Pelvic Girdle: Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
Superior border Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS) Figure 8–7

40 Pelvic Girdle: Ilium Iliac fossa Sacroiliac joint
Depression on anterior aspect Sacroiliac joint Between posterior superior and inferior spines; where ilium and sacrum articulate Greater sciatic notch Inferior to PIIS Passageway for large sciatic nerve Figure 8–7

41 Pelvic Girdle: Ischium
Posterior-inferior part of coxae Ischial spine Inferior to greater sciatic notch At posterior-superior end Lesser sciatic notch Inferior to ischial spine Ischial tuberosity Thickened posterior-inferior part Bears body weight when seated (“sit bone”) Figure 8–7

42 Pelvic Girdle: Pubis Anterior-inferior part of coxae Pubic symphysis
Joint where anterior medial surfaces of pubic bones are interconnect by fibrocartilage pad Limits movement between pubic bones of left and right hipbones Figure 8–7

43 Pelvic Girdle: Acetabulum
Also called the hip socket Large, concave socket on lateral surface of os coxae Meeting point of ilium, ischium, and pubis Articulates with head of femur Figure 8–7

44 Pelvic Girdle: Obturator Foramen
Large space encircled by pubis and ischium Closed by sheet of collagen fibers Provides base for hip muscles Figure 8–7

45 Pelvis Consists of: 2 hip bones Sacrum Coccyx (of axial skeleton) Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

46 Pelvis Figure 8–8

47 Pelvic Openings Pelvic inlet – (anterior) space enclosed by pelvic brim Pelvic outlet – opening bounded by coccyx and ischial tuberosities Figure 8–9

48 Pubic Angle Inferior angle between pubic bones Figure 8–10

49 Bones of the Lower Limbs
Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)

50 Femur Longest, heaviest bone Transfers body weight to ground
Articulates with: coxae at acetabulum tibia at knee joint Figure 8–11

51 Femur Head Neck Large, round proximal end Articulates at acetabulum
Narrow connector between head and shaft Joins shaft at angle Figure 8–11

52 Femur Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter
Large process at superior end of shaft Lesser trochanter Smaller process inferior to neck on medial /posterior side Figure 8–11

53 Femur Lateral condyle Medial condyle
Large, rounded, lateral projection at distal epiphysis Articulates with lateral condyle of tibia Medial condyle Large, rounded, medial projection at distal epiphysis Articulates with medial condyle of tibia Figure 8–11

54 Femur Intercondylar fossa
Depression between condyles on posterior side Figure 8–11

55 Femur Patellar surface
Flattened area between condyles on anterior side Figure 8–11

56 Patella Large sesamoid bone
Forms within tendon of quadriceps femoris (extends/straightens the knee) Figure 8–12

57 Tibia Larger, medial bone; supports body weight
Also called the shinbone Figure 8–13

58 Tibia Lateral condyle Medial condyle
Lateral projection at proximal epiphysis Articulates with lateral condyle of femur Medial condyle Medial projection at proximal epiphysis Articulates with medial condyle of femur Figure 8–13

59 Tibia Tibial tuberosity Roughened area on anterior surface
Inferior to condyles Attachment for patellar ligament Figure 8–13

60 Tibia Anterior margin Medial malleolus (“little mallet”)
Ridge that begins at tibial tuberosity and extends distally along anterior surface (“shin bone”) Medial malleolus (“little mallet”) Projection on medial side at distal epiphysis Figure 8–13

61 Fibula Slender, lateral bone of lower leg Figure 8–13

62 Fibula Head Lateral malleolus Articulates with proximal tibia
Projection on lateral side at distal epiphysis Articulates with distal tibia Provides lateral stability to ankle Figure 8–13

63 Tarsal Bones Allow ankle to bend and twist 7 bones

64 Ankle and Foot Bones Figure 8–14a

65 Tarsal Bones Talus Calcaneous Navicular Cuboid Cuneiforms (3)
Note: movement more restricted than wrist/hand

66 Metatarsal Bones 5 long bones of the foot
Numbered I–V from medial (big toe) to lateral Articulate with proximal phalanges

67 Phalanges Toe bones I (lateral) II - V Hallus (big toe):
2 phalanges (proximal, distal) II - V 3 phalanges (proximal, medial or middle, distal)

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