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An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and manipulate objects  Includes all bones besides.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and manipulate objects  Includes all bones besides."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and manipulate objects  Includes all bones besides axial skeleton  The limbs  The supportive girdles

2 An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton Fig 8-1

3 An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton Fig 8-1

4 The Pectoral Girdle  Also called the shoulder girdle  Connects the arms to the body  Positions the shoulders  Provides a base for arm movement  Consists of  Two clavicles  Two scapulae  Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium Fig 8-2

5 The Pectoral Girdle  The Clavicles  Also called collarbones  Long, S-shaped bones  Originate at the manubrium (sternal end)  Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)  Articulates distally with the _______________ and proximally with the _________________.

6 The Pectoral Girdle Fig 8-2

7 The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  Also called shoulder blades  Broad, flat triangles  Articulate with arm and collarbone

8 The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  Structures of the scapula  Body has three sides: –superior border –medial border (vertebral border) –lateral border (axillary border)  Body has three corners: –superior angle –inferior angle –lateral angle

9 The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  The scapular head  Holds glenoid cavity (glenohumeral joint/shoulder joint)  Which articulates with humerus  To form shoulder joint  Processes of the glenoid cavity  Coracoid process: –anterior, smaller  Acromion: –posterior, larger –articulates with clavicle –at the _______________________________

10 The Pectoral Girdle Fig 8-3

11 The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa  Posterior features of the scapula  Scapular spine: –ridge across posterior surface of body  Separates two regions: –supraspinous fossa –infraspinous fossa

12 The Upper Limbs  The upper limbs consist of the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

13 The Upper Limbs  The ___________________  Also called the arm  The long, upper arm bone  Articulates with the pelvic girdle

14 The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  Tubercles of the proximal epiphysis  Separated by the intertubercular groove: –greater tubercle: »lateral »forms tip of shoulder –lesser tubercle: »anterior, medial Fig 8-4

15 The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  Head:  Rounded, articulating surface  Contained within joint capsule  Anatomical neck:  Margin of joint capsule  Surgical neck:  The narrow metaphysis Fig 8-4

16 The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  The Shaft  ______________________: –a bulge in the shaft –attaches deltoid muscle  Radial groove: –for radial nerve –posterior to deltoid tuberosity Fig 8-4

17 The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  The distal epiphysis  Medial and lateral ___________: –for muscle attachment  ______________ of the humerus: –articulates with _____ and ______  Articular regions of the condyle  Trochlea: –__________ fossa and ________ fossa –articulates with ulna  _______________________: –radial fossa –articulates with _______________ Fig 8-4

18 The Upper Limbs  The Forearm (also called the antebrachium)  Consists of two long bones  Ulna (medial)  Radius (lateral) Fig 8-5

19 The Upper Limbs  The Ulna  The olecranon  Superior end of ulna  Point of elbow  Superior lip of trochlear notch  Articulates with trochlea of humerus  The coronoid process  Inferior lip of trochlear notch Fig 8-5

20 The Upper Limbs  The Ulna  Articulations with the humerus  Forearm extended: –olecranon enters ________ fossa  Forearm flexed: –coronoid process enters ________ fossa  Other articulations  Radial notch: –articulates with head of radius –forms proximal radio-ulnar joint  Ulnar head: –prominent ___________ process –attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist Fig 8-5

21 The Upper Limbs  The Ulna  Interosseous membrane  A fibrous sheet  Connects lateral margin of ulnar shaft to radius Fig 8-5

22 The Upper Limbs  The Radius  Lateral bone of forearm  Disk-shaped radial head above the neck  Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps  Articulations of the radius  Ulnar notch: –distal end –articulates with wrist and radius  _______________ process: –stabilizes wrist joint Fig 8-5

23 The Upper Limbs  Eight carpal bones (bones of the ______)  Four proximal carpal bones  Four distal carpal bones  Allow wrist to bend and twist

24 The Upper Limbs  The Four Proximal Carpal Bones  Scaphoid  Near styloid process  Lunate  Medial to scaphoid  Triquetrum  Medial to lunate bone  ________________  Anterior to triquetrum

25 The Upper Limbs  The Four Distal Carpal Bones  Trapezium  Lateral  Trapezoid  Medial to trapezium  Capitate  Largest  Hamate  Medial, distal

26 The Upper Limbs Fig 8-6

27 The Upper Limbs  Metacarpal Bones (form the _________)  The five long bones of the hand  Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial  Articulate with proximal phalanges  Phalanges of the Hands (14 total ______ bones)  Pollex (thumb)  Two phalanges (proximal, distal)  Fingers  Three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

28 The Upper Limbs Fig 8-6

29 The Pelvic Girdle  Made up of two hip bones (______ bones)  Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement  Part of the pelvis  Coxal bones  Made up of three fused bones  ___________ (articulates with sacrum)  Ischium  Pubis

30 The Pelvic Girdle  Coxal Bones  The ___________________  Also called the hip socket  Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis  Is on the lateral surface of the hip bone (coxal bone)  Articulates with head of the ____________ (lunate surface)  Acetabular notch  A gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum

31 The Pelvic Girdle Marks of the iIium Marks of the Ishium Marks of the Pubis Fig 8-7

32 The Pelvic Girdle  Marks of the Ilium  Greater sciatic notch  For sciatic nerve  ____________ crest (point of attachment for both ligaments and muscles)  Upper brim  iIiac fossa  Depression between iliac crest and arcuate line

33 The Pelvic Girdle  Marks of the Ischium  Ischial spine  Above lesser sciatic notch  _________________________  Posterior projection you sit on  Ischial ramus  Meets inferior ramus of pubis  Superior ramus  Meets pubic tubercle

34 The Pelvic Girdle  Marks of the Pubis  __________________________  Gap between pubic tubercles  Padded with fibrous cartilage  Obturator foramen  Formed by ischial and pubic rami  Attaches hip muscles  Pectineal line  Ridge of superior ramus of pubis  Continues to iliac crest as arcuate line (both of the ilium)

35 The Pelvic Girdle  Coxal Bones  Articulations of the pelvic girdle  Sacroiliac joint –Articulation of posterior auricular surface of ilium –With the sacrum –Stabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosity  The Pelvis  Consists of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx  Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae Fig 8-8

36 The Pelvic Girdle  Divisions of the Pelvis  True pelvis  Encloses pelvic cavity  Pelvic brim: –upper edge of true pelvis –encloses pelvic inlet  Perineum region: –inferior edges of true pelvis –forms pelvic outlet –perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity  False pelvis:  Blades of ilium above arcuate line Fig 8-9

37 The Pelvic Girdle  Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female Pelvis  Female pelvis  Smoother and lighter  Less prominent muscle and ligament attachments  Pelvis modifications for Childbearing –enlarged pelvic outlet –broad pubic angle (>100°) –less curvature of sacrum and coccyx –wide, circular pelvic inlet –broad, low pelvis –ilia project laterally, not upwards

38 The Pelvic Girdle Fig 8-10

39 The Lower Limbs  Functions of the lower limbs  Weight bearing  Motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

40 The Lower Limbs  Bones of the Lower Limbs  Femur (thigh)  Patella (kneecap)  Tibia and fibula (leg)  Tarsals (ankle)  Metatarsals (foot)  Phalanges (toes) Fig 8-1

41 The Lower Limbs  The Femur  The proximal epiphysis  Femoral head: –articulates with ______ at the acetabulum –attaches at fovea capitis  The neck: –Narrow area between head and trochanters –Joins shaft at angle Fig 8-11

42 The Lower Limbs  The Femur  The proximal epiphysis  Trochanters: –greater trochanter and lesser trochanter: »___________ attachments –intertrochanteric line (anterior) and intertrochanteric crest (posterior): »mark edge of articular capsule Fig 8-11

43 The Lower Limbs  The Femur  The shaft  Linea aspera: –most prominent ridge of shaft –attaches hip muscles –joins epicondyles  The distal epiphysis  Medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle: –above the knee joint  Medial condyle and lateral condyle: –separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface –form part of knee joint Fig 8-11

44 The Lower Limbs  The Patella (the ________________________)  A sesamoid bone  Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris  Base attaches quadriceps femoris  Apex attaches patellar ligament Fig 8-12

45 The Lower Limbs  The Tibia  Also called the shinbone  Supports body weight  Larger than fibula  Medial to fibula Fig 8-13

46 The Lower Limbs  The Tibia  The proximal epiphysis  Medial and lateral tibial condyles: –separated by intercondylar eminence –articulate with medial and lateral _____________ of femur  Tibial tuberosity: –attaches __________ ligament Fig 8-13

47 The Lower Limbs  The Tibia  The shaft  Anterior margin: –sharp ridge of shinbone  The distal epiphysis  Medial ___________: –medial projection at the ankle Fig 8-13

48 The Lower Limbs  The Fibula  Attaches muscles of feet and toes  Smaller than tibia  Lateral to tibia Fig 8-13

49 The Lower Limbs  The Fibula  Articulations with tibia  Fibula/tibia articulations: –head –inferior tibiofibular joint  Interosseous membrane: –binds fibula to tibia  ____________ malleolus: –lateral projection of ankle Fig 8-13

50 The Lower Limbs  The Ankle  Also called the tarsus  Consists of seven _____ bones  Bones of the ankle  __________________: –carries weight from tibia across trochlea  _____________ (heel bone): –transfers weight from talus to ground –attaches calcaneal (Achilles) tendon  Cuboid: –articulates with calcaneus Fig 8-14

51 The Lower Limbs  The Ankle  Bones of the ankle  _________________: –articulates with talus and three cuneiform bones  Medial cuneiform  Intermediate cuneiform  Lateral cuneiform Fig 8-14

52 The Lower Limbs Fig 8-14

53 The Lower Limbs  ____tarsal Bones of the Foot  Five long bones of foot  Numbered I–V, medial to lateral  Articulate with toes Fig 8-14

54 The Lower Limbs  Phalanges of the foot  Phalanges  14 bones of the toes  Hallux  Big toe or great toe, two phalanges (distal, proximal)  Other four toes  Three phalanges (distal, medial, proximal) Fig 8-14

55 The Lower Limbs  Arches of the Feet  Arches transfer weight from one part of the foot to another  The longitudinal arch  Calcaneal portion: –lateral  Talar portion: –medial  The transverse arch  Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot

56 The Lower Limbs Fig 8-14

57 Individual Skeleton Variation  Studying the Skeleton  Reveals characteristics  Muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass)  Medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures)  Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)  Body size and handedness

58 Individual Skeleton Variation

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