2 LATIN TERMS to know! Pect = breast Vert = turn; joint Pelv = basin Sutur = seamMeta = after, adjacentArticulus = come together, jointVert = turn; jointEndo = withinEpi= uponLamina = thin plateCondyle = knuckleSym = togetherBe familiar with all bones & regions identified in the following notes & all underlined regions of bones!
3 Appendicular Skeletal System 126 bonesConsists of the:Upper ExtremitiesPectoral GirdleHumerusUlna & radiusCarpal bonesMetacarpalsPhalangesLower ExtremitiesPelvic girdleFemurTibia & fibulaTarsal bonesMetatarsalsPhalanges
5 The Upper Extremities Bones & bone regions to be familiar with! Pectoral girdleClavicleScapulaSuperior & medial bordersLateral borderInferior angleCaracoid processAcromion processBrachiumHumerusHeadGreater & lesser tuberositiesMedial & lateral epicondylesUlnar nerveAntebrachiumRadiusUlnaOlecranon processTrochlear (semilunar) notchCarpalsCarpusMetacarpalsManusPhalangesPollex
6 The Pectoral Girdle Clavicles Scapulae SUPERIOR ManubriumClavicles“S” shaped bones that originate at the superior lateral border of the manubrium of the sternumScapulaeFlat bones located at the posterior lateral portion of the bodyLATERALMEDIALINFERIOR
7 Regions to be familiar with The Upper LimbsRegions to be familiar withBrachium (upper arm) contains the humerusAntebrachium (forearm) contains the radius & ulna
8 Brachium Humerus: Long bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow Superior round portion that articulates with the scapula is known as the “head”Greater & lesser tuberositiesMedial & lateral epicondylesSites of skeletal muscle attachment“Tuberosity” – refers to a process“Epi” – on, “condyle” – knuckleUlnar nerve: runs the length of the humerus & attaches at the proximal end of the ulna (olecranon process)Blow to this nerve sends sensation known as a “funny bone”
9 AntebrachiumThe humerus articulates with the radius & ulna at a location known as the “condyle”Ulna: long bone that is medial to radiusOlecranon process: superior/ proximal end of ulnaForms point of elbowTrochlear (semilunar) notch: large depression where distal end of humerus articulates with the olecranon process of the ulnaRadius: long bone that is the lateral bone of forearm
10 Wrist, Hand & FingersCarpalsMetacarpalsPhalanges
11 Is this diagram showing correct anatomical positioning? Carpus & Manus BonesICarpus (wrist) –Contains 8 carpal short bones2 rowsManus (hand) contains 19 bones in 2 groupsMetacarpals (5 in palm of hand) –Short bones that articulate with distal carpal bones to support the handRoman numerals (I-V) are used to identify the metacarpals from lateral to medialPhalanges (14 finger bones) –Articulate distally to metacarpal bonesProximal, middle & distal setsThumb is known as the pollexOnly has proximal & distal setsVIVIIIIIBRAIN BREAK:Is this diagram showingcorrect anatomical positioning?
13 The Lower Extremities Bones & bone regions to be familiar with! Pelvic girdle – ossa coxaeIliumIschiumPubisPubis symphysisAcetabulumGreater sciatic notchIschial TuberosityFemurHeadNeckShaftGreater (anterior) & Lesser (posterior) TrochantersMedial & Lateral EpicondylesPatellaFibulaHeadTibiaTibial TuberosityLateral & medial condylesTarsalsTalusCalcaneous boneNavicular boneCuboidLateral, medial & intermediate cuneiform bonesMetatarsalsPhalanges
14 Pelvic Girdle Paired hipbones - “ossa coxae” Each hipbone – os coxa Fusion of 3 bonesIlium (pl. – Ilia)Extensive area of muscle, tendon, ligament attachmentIschium (pl. – Ischia)PosteriorPubisAnterior joint - Articulation of pubis bone at the anterior portion of the pelvic girdle – pubis symphysisFibrocartilage at jointPosterior articulation – Ilia articulate to sacrum of vertebral column
15 More on the Ossa Coxae Acetabulum Greater sciatic notch – IliumAcetabulumArticulation socket of ilia & head of each femurAll 3 bones of ossa coxae meet hereGreater sciatic notch –Area through which large sciatic nerve runs & reaches lower extremitiesIschial Tuberosity –Projection on posterior, lateral side of ischiaBears all body weight when sittingPubisIschium
16 Comparison of Male & Female Pelvic GirdlesFemale:Less massive, shallower pubic arch, pelvic inlet round/ovalMale:Heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical, coccyx more vertical, pelvic inlet heart-shaped, outlet smaller
17 Femur Fibula Tibia The Lower Limbs Is this person standing in correct anatomical position?
18 FEMUR Longest & heaviest bone in body Articulates proximally with ossa coxae at hip joint & distally with tibia at knee jointRegions to identify:HeadNeckShaftGreater (anterior) & Lesser (posterior) TrochantersMedial & Lateral Epicondyles
19 Patella (Kneecap) Triangular sesamoid bone Enclosed in the quadriceps tendon that secures the anterior thigh muscles to the tibia (lower limb)Guards knee joint anteriorly & improves leverage of thigh muscles acting across knee joint
20 Tibia & Fibula Tibia – Fibula – Large medial bone that articulates with the epicondyles of the femurHelps support weight“shinbone”Fibula –Parallels the lateral border of the tibiaAids in moving foot & toes
21 This little piggy went to the market… Tarsal bones:Talus: ankleCalcaneous bone: heel boneNavicular boneCuboidLateral, medial & intermediate cuneiform bonesMetatarsals –Short bones that articulate with distal tarsal bonesIdentified by Roman Numerals (I-V)Phalanges (toes, digits)Articulate distally to metatarsal bonesProximal, middle, distal (14 total)Big toe – “Great toe”Has 2 phalanges (proximal & distal)IIIIIIIVV