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HUMAN ANATOMY The Appendicular Skeleton Ch. 8.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN ANATOMY The Appendicular Skeleton Ch. 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN ANATOMY The Appendicular Skeleton Ch. 8

2 LATIN TERMS to know! Pect = breast Vert = turn; joint Pelv = basin
Sutur = seam Meta = after, adjacent Articulus = come together, joint Vert = turn; joint Endo = within Epi= upon Lamina = thin plate Condyle = knuckle Sym = together Be familiar with all bones & regions identified in the following notes & all underlined regions of bones!

3 Appendicular Skeletal System
126 bones Consists of the: Upper Extremities Pectoral Girdle Humerus Ulna & radius Carpal bones Metacarpals Phalanges Lower Extremities Pelvic girdle Femur Tibia & fibula Tarsal bones Metatarsals Phalanges

4 The Upper Extremities

5 The Upper Extremities Bones & bone regions to be familiar with!
Pectoral girdle Clavicle Scapula Superior & medial borders Lateral border Inferior angle Caracoid process Acromion process Brachium Humerus Head Greater & lesser tuberosities Medial & lateral epicondyles Ulnar nerve Antebrachium Radius Ulna Olecranon process Trochlear (semilunar) notch Carpals Carpus Metacarpals Manus Phalanges Pollex

6 The Pectoral Girdle Clavicles Scapulae SUPERIOR
Manubrium Clavicles “S” shaped bones that originate at the superior lateral border of the manubrium of the sternum Scapulae Flat bones located at the posterior lateral portion of the body LATERAL MEDIAL INFERIOR

7 Regions to be familiar with
The Upper Limbs Regions to be familiar with Brachium (upper arm) contains the humerus Antebrachium (forearm) contains the radius & ulna

8 Brachium Humerus: Long bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow
Superior round portion that articulates with the scapula is known as the “head” Greater & lesser tuberosities Medial & lateral epicondyles Sites of skeletal muscle attachment “Tuberosity” – refers to a process “Epi” – on, “condyle” – knuckle Ulnar nerve: runs the length of the humerus & attaches at the proximal end of the ulna (olecranon process) Blow to this nerve sends sensation known as a “funny bone”

9 Antebrachium The humerus articulates with the radius & ulna at a location known as the “condyle” Ulna: long bone that is medial to radius Olecranon process: superior/ proximal end of ulna Forms point of elbow Trochlear (semilunar) notch: large depression where distal end of humerus articulates with the olecranon process of the ulna Radius: long bone that is the lateral bone of forearm

10 Wrist, Hand & Fingers Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges

11 Is this diagram showing correct anatomical positioning?
Carpus & Manus Bones I Carpus (wrist) – Contains 8 carpal short bones 2 rows Manus (hand) contains 19 bones in 2 groups Metacarpals (5 in palm of hand) – Short bones that articulate with distal carpal bones to support the hand Roman numerals (I-V) are used to identify the metacarpals from lateral to medial Phalanges (14 finger bones) – Articulate distally to metacarpal bones Proximal, middle & distal sets Thumb is known as the pollex Only has proximal & distal sets V IV III II BRAIN BREAK: Is this diagram showing correct anatomical positioning?

12 The Lower Extremities

13 The Lower Extremities Bones & bone regions to be familiar with!
Pelvic girdle – ossa coxae Ilium Ischium Pubis Pubis symphysis Acetabulum Greater sciatic notch Ischial Tuberosity Femur Head Neck Shaft Greater (anterior) & Lesser (posterior) Trochanters Medial & Lateral Epicondyles Patella Fibula Head Tibia Tibial Tuberosity Lateral & medial condyles Tarsals Talus Calcaneous bone Navicular bone Cuboid Lateral, medial & intermediate cuneiform bones Metatarsals Phalanges

14 Pelvic Girdle Paired hipbones - “ossa coxae” Each hipbone – os coxa
Fusion of 3 bones Ilium (pl. – Ilia) Extensive area of muscle, tendon, ligament attachment Ischium (pl. – Ischia) Posterior Pubis Anterior joint - Articulation of pubis bone at the anterior portion of the pelvic girdle – pubis symphysis Fibrocartilage at joint Posterior articulation – Ilia articulate to sacrum of vertebral column

15 More on the Ossa Coxae Acetabulum Greater sciatic notch –
Ilium Acetabulum Articulation socket of ilia & head of each femur All 3 bones of ossa coxae meet here Greater sciatic notch – Area through which large sciatic nerve runs & reaches lower extremities Ischial Tuberosity – Projection on posterior, lateral side of ischia Bears all body weight when sitting Pubis Ischium

16 Comparison of Male & Female
Pelvic Girdles Female: Less massive, shallower pubic arch, pelvic inlet round/oval Male: Heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical, coccyx more vertical, pelvic inlet heart-shaped, outlet smaller

17 Femur Fibula Tibia The Lower Limbs Is this person standing in
correct anatomical position?

18 FEMUR Longest & heaviest bone in body
Articulates proximally with ossa coxae at hip joint & distally with tibia at knee joint Regions to identify: Head Neck Shaft Greater (anterior) & Lesser (posterior) Trochanters Medial & Lateral Epicondyles

19 Patella (Kneecap) Triangular sesamoid bone
Enclosed in the quadriceps tendon that secures the anterior thigh muscles to the tibia (lower limb) Guards knee joint anteriorly & improves leverage of thigh muscles acting across knee joint

20 Tibia & Fibula Tibia – Fibula –
Large medial bone that articulates with the epicondyles of the femur Helps support weight “shinbone” Fibula – Parallels the lateral border of the tibia Aids in moving foot & toes

21 This little piggy went to the market…
Tarsal bones: Talus: ankle Calcaneous bone: heel bone Navicular bone Cuboid Lateral, medial & intermediate cuneiform bones Metatarsals – Short bones that articulate with distal tarsal bones Identified by Roman Numerals (I-V) Phalanges (toes, digits) Articulate distally to metatarsal bones Proximal, middle, distal (14 total) Big toe – “Great toe” Has 2 phalanges (proximal & distal) I II III IV V


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