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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton PowerPoint® Lecture Slides.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton PowerPoint® Lecture Slides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and manipulate objects  Includes all bones besides axial skeleton  The limbs  The supportive girdles

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton Figure 8–1 The Appendicular Skeleton.

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton Figure 8–1 The Appendicular Skeleton.

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle  Also called the shoulder girdle  Connects the arms to the body  Positions the shoulders  Provides a base for arm movement  Consists of  Two clavicles  Two scapulae  Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle  The Clavicles  Also called collarbones  Long, S-shaped bones  Originate at the manubrium (sternal end)  Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle Figure 8–2 The Clavicle.

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  Also called shoulder blades  Broad, flat triangles  Articulate with arm and collarbone  Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  Structures of the scapula  Body has three sides: –superior border –medial border (vertebral border) –lateral border (axillary border)  Body has three corners: –superior angle –inferior angle –lateral angle

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  The scapular head  Holds glenoid cavity  Which articulates with humerus  To form shoulder joint  Processes of the glenoid cavity  Coracoid process: –anterior, smaller  Acromion: –posterior, larger –articulates with clavicle –at the acromioclavicular joint

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle Figure 8–3 The Scapula.

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pectoral Girdle  The Scapulae  Posterior features of the scapula  Scapular spine: –ridge across posterior surface of body  Separates two regions: –supraspinous fossa –infraspinous fossa 3D Rotation of Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The upper limbs consist of the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  Also called the arm  The long, upper arm bone  Articulates with the pelvic girdle

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  Tubercles of the proximal epiphysis  Separated by the intertubercular groove: –greater tubercle: »lateral »forms tip of shoulder –lesser tubercle: »anterior, medial

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  Head:  Rounded, articulating surface  Contained within joint capsule  Anatomical neck:  Margin of joint capsule  Surgical neck:  The narrow metaphysis

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  The Shaft  Deltoid tuberosity: –a bulge in the shaft –attaches deltoid muscle  Radial groove: –for radial nerve –posterior to deltoid tuberosity

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Humerus  The distal epiphysis  Medial and lateral epicondyles: –for muscle attachment  Condyle of the humerus: –articulates with ulna and radius  Articular regions of the condyle  Trochlea: –coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa –articulates with ulna  Capitulum: –radial fossa –articulates with radius

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–4a The Humerus.

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–4b The Humerus.

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Forearm (also called the antebrachium)  Consists of two long bones  Ulna (medial)  Radius (lateral)

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Ulna  The olecranon  Superior end of ulna  Point of elbow  Superior lip of trochlear notch  Articulates with trochlea of humerus  The coronoid process  Inferior lip of trochlear notch

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Ulna  Articulations with the humerus  Forearm extended: –olecranon enters olecranon fossa  Forearm flexed: –coronoid process enters coronoid fossa  Other articulations  Radial notch: –articulates with head of radius –forms proximal radio-ulnar joint  Ulnar head: –prominent styloid process –attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–5a The Radius and Ulna.

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Ulna  Interosseous membrane  A fibrous sheet  Connects lateral margin of ulnar shaft to radius

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Radius  Lateral bone of forearm  Disk-shaped radial head above the neck  Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps  Articulations of the radius  Ulnar notch: –distal end –articulates with wrist and radius  Styloid process: –stabilizes wrist joint

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–5b The Radius and Ulna.

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  Eight carpal bones  Four proximal carpal bones  Four distal carpal bones  Allow wrist to bend and twist

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Four Proximal Carpal Bones  Scaphoid  Near styloid process  Lunate  Medial to scaphoid  Triquetrum  Medial to lunate bone  Pisiform  Anterior to triquetrum

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  The Four Distal Carpal Bones  Trapezium  Lateral  Trapezoid  Medial to trapezium  Capitate  Largest  Hamate  Medial, distal

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–6 Bones of the Wrist and Hand.

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs  Metacarpal Bones  The five long bones of the hand  Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial  Articulate with proximal phalanges  Phalanges of the Hands (14 total finger bones)  Pollex (thumb)  Two phalanges (proximal, distal)  Fingers  Three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–6a Bones of the Wrist and Hand.

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limbs Figure 8–6b Bones of the Wrist and Hand.

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Made up of two hip bones (coxal bones)  Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement  Part of the pelvis  Coxal bones  Made up of three fused bones  Ilium (articulates with sacrum)  Ischium  Pubis

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Coxal Bones  The acetabulum  Also called the hip socket  Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis  Is on the lateral surface of the hip bone (coxal bone)  Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)  Acetabular notch  A gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7a The Right Coxal Bone.

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7b The Right Coxal Bone.

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Marks of the Ilium  Greater sciatic notch  For sciatic nerve  Iliac crest  Upper brim  Iliac fossa  Depression between iliac crest and arcuate line

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Marks of the Ischium  Ischial spine  Above lesser sciatic notch  Ischial tuberosity  Posterior projection you sit on  Ischial ramus  Meets inferior ramus of pubis  Superior ramus  Meets pubic tubercle

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Marks of the Pubis  Pubic symphysis  Gap between pubic tubercles  Padded with fibrous cartilage  Obturator foramen  Formed by ischial and pubic rami  Attaches hip muscles  Pectineal line  Ridge of superior ramus of pubis  Continues to iliac crest as arcuate line (both of the ilium)

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7 The Right Coxal Bone.

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Coxal Bones  Articulations of the pelvic girdle  Sacroiliac joint –Articulation of posterior auricular surface of ilium –With the sacrum –Stabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosity  The Pelvis  Consists of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx  Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae 3D Rotation of Pelvis

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–8a The Pelvis.

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–8b The Pelvis.

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Divisions of the Pelvis  True pelvis  Encloses pelvic cavity  Pelvic brim: –upper edge of true pelvis –encloses pelvic inlet  Perineum region: –inferior edges of true pelvis –forms pelvic outlet –perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity  False pelvis:  Blades of ilium above arcuate line

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–9a Divisions of the Pelvis.

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–9b Divisions of the Pelvis.

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–9c Divisions of the Pelvis.

50 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle  Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female Pelvis  Female pelvis  Smoother and lighter  Less prominent muscle and ligament attachments  Pelvis modifications for Childbearing –enlarged pelvic outlet –broad pubic angle (>100°) –less curvature of sacrum and coccyx –wide, circular pelvic inlet –broad, low pelvis –ilia project laterally, not upwards Male and Female Pelvis

51 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–10 Anatomical Differences in the Pelvis of a Male and a Female.

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–10a Anatomical Differences in the Pelvis of a Male and a Female.

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–10b Anatomical Differences in the Pelvis of a Male and a Female.

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  Functions of the lower limbs  Weight bearing  Motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  Bones of the Lower Limbs  Femur (thigh)  Patella (kneecap)  Tibia and fibula (leg)  Tarsals (ankle)  Metatarsals (foot)  Phalanges (toes)

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Femur  The proximal epiphysis  Femoral head: –articulates with pelvis at acetabulum –attaches at fovea capitis  The neck: –Narrow area between head and trochanters –Joins shaft at angle

57 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Femur  The proximal epiphysis  Trochanters: –greater trochanter and lesser trochanter: »tendon attachments –intertrochanteric line (anterior) and intertrochanteric crest (posterior): »mark edge of articular capsule

58 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Femur  The shaft  Linea aspera: –most prominent ridge of shaft –attaches hip muscles –joins epicondyles  The distal epiphysis  Medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle: –above the knee joint  Medial condyle and lateral condyle: –separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface –form part of knee joint

59 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–11 The Femur.

60 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–11a The Femur.

61 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–11b The Femur.

62 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Patella  Also called the kneecap  A sesamoid bone  Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris  Base attaches quadriceps femoris  Apex attaches patellar ligament

63 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–12 The Right Patella.

64 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–12 The Right Patella.

65 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Tibia  Also called the shinbone  Supports body weight  Larger than fibula  Medial to fibula

66 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Tibia  The proximal epiphysis  Medial and lateral tibial condyles: –separated by intercondylar eminence –articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur  Tibial tuberosity: –attaches patellar ligament

67 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Tibia  The shaft  Anterior margin: –sharp ridge of shinbone  The distal epiphysis  Medial malleolus: –medial projection at the ankle

68 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Fibula  Attaches muscles of feet and toes  Smaller than tibia  Lateral to tibia

69 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Fibula  Articulations with tibia  Fibula/tibia articulations: –head –inferior tibiofibular joint  Interosseous membrane: –binds fibula to tibia  Lateral malleolus: –lateral projection of ankle

70 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–13 The Tibia and Fibula.

71 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–13a The Tibia and Fibula.

72 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–13b The Tibia and Fibula.

73 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Ankle  Also called the tarsus  Consists of seven tarsal bones  Bones of the ankle  Talus: –carries weight from tibia across trochlea  Calcaneus (heel bone): –transfers weight from talus to ground –attaches calcaneal (Achilles) tendon  Cuboid: –articulates with calcaneus

74 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  The Ankle  Bones of the ankle  Navicular: –articulates with talus and three cuneiform bones  Medial cuneiform  Intermediate cuneiform  Lateral cuneiform

75 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–14a Bones of the Ankle and Foot.

76 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  Metatarsal Bones of the Foot  Five long bones of foot  Numbered I–V, medial to lateral  Articulate with toes

77 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  Phalanges of the foot  Phalanges  14 bones of the toes  Hallux  Big toe or great toe, two phalanges (distal, proximal)  Other four toes  Three phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

78 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–14a Bones of the Ankle and Foot.

79 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs  Arches of the Feet  Arches transfer weight from one part of the foot to another  The longitudinal arch  Calcaneal portion: –lateral  Talar portion: –medial  The transverse arch  Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot

80 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Lower Limbs Figure 8–14b Bones of the Ankle and Foot.

81 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Individual Skeleton Variation  Studying the Skeleton  Reveals characteristics  Muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass)  Medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures)  Sex and age (bone measurements and fusion)  Body size

82 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Individual Skeleton Variation

83 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Individual Skeleton Variation

84 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Individual Skeleton Variation

85 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Individual Skeleton Variation


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