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Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Frederic H. Martini Unit 2 Support and Movement Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Frederic H. Martini Unit 2 Support and Movement Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Frederic H. Martini Unit 2 Support and Movement Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Professor Albia Dugger, Miami–Dade College, Miami, FL Professor Robert R. Speed, Ph.D., Wallace Community College, Dothan, AL

2 Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

3 The Appendicular Skeleton Figure 8–1

4 The Appendicular Skeleton Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles

5 What are the bones of the pectoral girdle, their functions, and features?

6 The Pectoral Girdle Figure 8–2a

7 The Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement

8 The Pectoral Girdle Consists of: 2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

9 The Clavicles Figure 8–2b, c

10 The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

11 The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and collarbone

12 The Scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa Figure 8–3a

13 Structures of the Scapula Body has 3 sides: superior border medial border (vertebral border) lateral border (axillary border)

14 Structures of the Scapula Figure 8–3b

15 The Scapular Head Holds glenoid cavity Which articulates with humerus To form shoulder joint

16 Processes of the Glenoid Cavity Coracoid process: anterior, smaller Acromion: posterior, larger articulates with clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint

17 Structures of the Scapula Posterior surface Figure 8–3c

18 Posterior Features of the Scapula Scapular spine: ridge across posterior surface of body Separates 2 regions: supraspinous fossa infraspinous fossa 3D Rotation of Scapula, Clavicle and Humerus PLAY

19 What are the bones of the upper limbs, their functions, and features?

20 The Upper Limbs Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

21 The Humerus Figure 8–4

22 The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone Articulates with the pelvic girdle

23 The Distal Epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles: for muscle attachment Condyle of the humerus: articulates with ulna and radius

24 Articular Regions of the Condyle Trochlea: coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa articulates with ulna Capitulum: radial fossa articulates with radius

25 The Forearm Figure 8–5

26 The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones: ulna (medial) radius (lateral)

27 Ulna: The Olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus

28 Ulna: Articulations with the Humerus Forearm extended: olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed: coronoid process enters coronoid fossa

29 Ulna: Other Articulations Radial notch: articulates with head of radius forms proximal radioulnar joint Ulnar head: prominent styloid process attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

30 The Radius Lateral bone of forearm Disk-shaped radial head above the neck Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps

31 Articulations of the Radius Ulnar notch: distal end articulates with wrist and radius Styloid process: stabilizes wrist joint

32 The Wrist Figure 8–6

33 The Wrist 8 carpal bones: 4 proximal carpal bones 4 distal carpal bones allow wrist to bend and twist

34 Metacarpal Bones The 5 long bones of the hand Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges

35 Phalanges of the Hands Pollex (thumb): 2 phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers: 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

36 What are the bones of the pelvic girdle, their functions, and features?

37 The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7

38 The Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae) Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis

39 Os Coxae Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium (articulates with sacrum) ischium pubis

40 The Acetabulum Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the os coxae Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)

41 Marks of the Ilium Greater sciatic notch: for sciatic nerve

42 Marks of the Pubis Pubic symphysis: gap between pubic tubercles padded with fibrocartilage

43 Marks of the Pelvic Girdle Obturator foramen: formed by ischial and pubic rami attaches hip muscles

44 The Pelvis Figure 8–8

45 The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae 3D Rotation of Pelvis PLAY

46 Divisions of the Pelvis Figure 8–9

47 Divisions of the Pelvis True pelvis: encloses pelvic cavity False pelvis: blades of ilium above arcuate line

48 The True Pelvis Pelvic brim: upper edge of true pelvis encloses pelvic inlet

49 The True Pelvis Perineum region: inferior edges of true pelvis forms pelvic outlet perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity

50 What are the structural and functional differences between the male and female pelvis?

51 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Figure 8–10

52 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Female pelvis: smoother lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments Male and Female Pelvis PLAY

53 Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100°) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards

54 What are the bones of the lower limbs, their functions, and features?

55 The Lower Limbs Functions: weight bearing motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

56 Bones of the Lower Limbs Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)

57 The Femur The longest, heaviest bone Figure 8–11

58 Femur: The Proximal Epiphysis Femoral head: articulates with pelvis at acetabulum attaches at fovea capitis

59 Femur: The Neck Narrow area between head and trochanters Joins shaft at angle

60 Femur: Trochanters Greater and lesser trochanters: tendon attachments

61 Femur: The Distal Epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles: above the knee joint Medial and lateral condyles: separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface form part of knee joint

62 The Patella Figure 8–12

63 The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament

64 The Tibia Figure 8–13

65 The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula

66 Tibia: The Proximal Epiphysis Medial and lateral tibial condyles: separated by intercondylar eminence articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity: attaches patellar ligament

67 Tibia: The Shaft Anterior margin: sharp ridge of shinbone

68 Tibia: The Distal Epiphysis Medial malleolus: medial projection at the ankle

69 The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia

70 Fibula: Articulations with Tibia Lateral malleolus: lateral projection of ankle

71 The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones Figure 8–14a

72 Bones of the Ankle Talus: carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon

73 Feet: Metatarsal Bones 5 long bones of foot Numbered I–V, medial to lateral Articulate with toes

74 Feet: Phalanges Phalanges: bones of the toes Hallux: big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

75 Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another Figure 8–14b

76 Feet: The Transverse Arch Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot

77 KEY CONCEPT Pectoral girdle is highly mobile, stabilized primarily by muscles Pelvic girdle is more massive, stronger, and less mobile

78 How does the skeleton reveal significant information about an individual?

79 Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics: muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) body size

80 What are the skeletal differences between males and females?

81 Male and Female Skeletons * Table 8–1

82 How does aging affect the skeletal system?

83 Age-Related Skeletal Changes * Table 8–2

84 SUMMARY (1 of 3) Components of the: appendicular skeleton pectoral girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton upper limbs, and relationship to pectoral girdle

85 SUMMARY (2 of 3) Components of the: pelvic girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton lower limbs, and relationship to pelvic girdle

86 SUMMARY (3 of 3) Differences between male and female pelvises Individual skeletal variations Effects of aging

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