The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula
Tibia: The Proximal Epiphysis Medial and lateral tibial condyles: separated by intercondylar eminence articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity: attaches patellar ligament
Tibia: The Shaft Anterior margin: sharp ridge of shinbone
Tibia: The Distal Epiphysis Medial malleolus: medial projection at the ankle
The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia
Fibula: Articulations with Tibia Lateral malleolus: lateral projection of ankle
The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones Figure 8–14a
Bones of the Ankle Talus: carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon
Feet: Metatarsal Bones 5 long bones of foot Numbered I–V, medial to lateral Articulate with toes
Feet: Phalanges Phalanges: bones of the toes Hallux: big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)
Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another Figure 8–14b
Feet: The Transverse Arch Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot
KEY CONCEPT Pectoral girdle is highly mobile, stabilized primarily by muscles Pelvic girdle is more massive, stronger, and less mobile
How does the skeleton reveal significant information about an individual?
Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics: muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) body size
What are the skeletal differences between males and females?