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2 Support and Movement Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Unit

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1 2 Support and Movement Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology Unit
Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Professor Albia Dugger, Miami–Dade College, Miami, FL Professor Robert R. Speed, Ph.D., Wallace Community College, Dothan, AL Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

2 Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton

3 The Appendicular Skeleton
Figure 8–1

4 The Appendicular Skeleton
Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles

5 What are the bones of the pectoral girdle, their functions, and features?

6 The Pectoral Girdle Figure 8–2a

7 The Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle
Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement

8 The Pectoral Girdle Consists of:
2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

9 The Clavicles Figure 8–2b, c

10 The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones
Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

11 The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles
Articulate with arm and collarbone

12 The Scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa Figure 8–3a

13 Structures of the Scapula
Body has 3 sides: superior border medial border (vertebral border) lateral border (axillary border)

14 Structures of the Scapula
Figure 8–3b

15 The Scapular Head Holds glenoid cavity Which articulates with humerus
To form shoulder joint

16 Processes of the Glenoid Cavity
Coracoid process: anterior, smaller Acromion: posterior, larger articulates with clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint

17 Structures of the Scapula
Posterior surface Figure 8–3c

18 Posterior Features of the Scapula
Scapular spine: ridge across posterior surface of body Separates 2 regions: supraspinous fossa infraspinous fossa 3D Rotation of Scapula, Clavicle and Humerus PLAY

19 What are the bones of the upper limbs, their functions, and features?

20 The Upper Limbs Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands
Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus

21 The Humerus Figure 8–4

22 The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone
Articulates with the pelvic girdle

23 The Distal Epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles:
for muscle attachment Condyle of the humerus: articulates with ulna and radius

24 Articular Regions of the Condyle
Trochlea: coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa articulates with ulna Capitulum: radial fossa articulates with radius

25 The Forearm Figure 8–5

26 The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones:
ulna (medial) radius (lateral)

27 Ulna: The Olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow
Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus

28 Ulna: Articulations with the Humerus
Forearm extended: olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed: coronoid process enters coronoid fossa

29 Ulna: Other Articulations
Radial notch: articulates with head of radius forms proximal radioulnar joint Ulnar head: prominent styloid process attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

30 The Radius Lateral bone of forearm
Disk-shaped radial head above the neck Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps

31 Articulations of the Radius
Ulnar notch: distal end articulates with wrist and radius Styloid process: stabilizes wrist joint

32 The Wrist Figure 8–6

33 The Wrist 8 carpal bones: 4 proximal carpal bones
4 distal carpal bones allow wrist to bend and twist

34 Metacarpal Bones The 5 long bones of the hand
Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges

35 Phalanges of the Hands Pollex (thumb): Fingers:
2 phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers: 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

36 What are the bones of the pelvic girdle, their functions, and features?

37 The Pelvic Girdle Figure 8–7

38 The Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae)
Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis

39 Os Coxae Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium (articulates with sacrum)
ischium pubis

40 The Acetabulum Also called the hip socket
Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the os coxae Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)

41 Marks of the Ilium Greater sciatic notch: for sciatic nerve

42 Marks of the Pubis Pubic symphysis: gap between pubic tubercles
padded with fibrocartilage

43 Marks of the Pelvic Girdle
Obturator foramen: formed by ischial and pubic rami attaches hip muscles

44 The Pelvis Figure 8–8

45 The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx
Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae PLAY 3D Rotation of Pelvis

46 Divisions of the Pelvis
Figure 8–9

47 Divisions of the Pelvis
True pelvis: encloses pelvic cavity False pelvis: blades of ilium above arcuate line

48 The True Pelvis Pelvic brim: upper edge of true pelvis
encloses pelvic inlet

49 The True Pelvis Perineum region: inferior edges of true pelvis
forms pelvic outlet perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity

50 What are the structural and functional differences between the male and female pelvis?

51 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis
Figure 8–10

52 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis
smoother lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments PLAY Male and Female Pelvis

53 Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing
Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100°) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards

54 What are the bones of the lower limbs, their functions, and features?

55 The Lower Limbs Functions: Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg
weight bearing motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg

56 Bones of the Lower Limbs
Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)

57 The Femur The longest, heaviest bone Figure 8–11

58 Femur: The Proximal Epiphysis
Femoral head: articulates with pelvis at acetabulum attaches at fovea capitis

59 Femur: The Neck Narrow area between head and trochanters
Joins shaft at angle

60 Femur: Trochanters Greater and lesser trochanters: tendon attachments

61 Femur: The Distal Epiphysis
Medial and lateral epicondyles: above the knee joint Medial and lateral condyles: separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface form part of knee joint

62 The Patella Figure 8–12

63 The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone
Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament

64 The Tibia Figure 8–13

65 The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight
Larger than fibula Medial to fibula

66 Tibia: The Proximal Epiphysis
Medial and lateral tibial condyles: separated by intercondylar eminence articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity: attaches patellar ligament

67 Tibia: The Shaft Anterior margin: sharp ridge of shinbone

68 Tibia: The Distal Epiphysis
Medial malleolus: medial projection at the ankle

69 The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia
Lateral to tibia

70 Fibula: Articulations with Tibia
Lateral malleolus: lateral projection of ankle

71 The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones
Figure 8–14a

72 Bones of the Ankle Talus: Calcaneus (heel bone):
carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon

73 Feet: Metatarsal Bones
5 long bones of foot Numbered I–V, medial to lateral Articulate with toes

74 Feet: Phalanges Phalanges: Hallux: Other 4 toes: bones of the toes
big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

75 Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another
Figure 8–14b

76 Feet: The Transverse Arch
Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and lateral borders of the foot

77 KEY CONCEPT Pectoral girdle is highly mobile, stabilized primarily by muscles Pelvic girdle is more massive, stronger, and less mobile

78 How does the skeleton reveal significant information about an individual?

79 Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics:
muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) body size

80 What are the skeletal differences between males and females?

81 Male and Female Skeletons *
Table 8–1

82 How does aging affect the skeletal system?

83 Age-Related Skeletal Changes *
Table 8–2

84 SUMMARY (1 of 3) Components of the: appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton upper limbs, and relationship to pectoral girdle

85 SUMMARY (2 of 3) Components of the:
pelvic girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton lower limbs, and relationship to pelvic girdle

86 SUMMARY (3 of 3) Differences between male and female pelvises
Individual skeletal variations Effects of aging

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