Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton
2Appendicular Skeleton The primary function is movementIt includes bones of the upper and lower limbsGirdles attach the limbs to the axial skeleton126 bonesEmphasize that it is important to learn the location of each bone (and its surface features) relative to the location of other bones (and their surface features) in order to understand the three-dimensional relationship between bones.Use of directional terms (e.g., lateral, superior, etc.) while studying will facilitate this task.
9Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Upper LimbThe arm has 30 bones1 humerus (arm)1 ulna (forearm)1 radius (forearm)8 carpals (wrist)19 metacarpal and phalanges (hand)While progressing through a lecture, point out that many of the bones and their surface features (e.g., olecranon) may be easily palpated.Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
10Humerus - Surface Features greater tubercle lies more laterallylesser tubercle lies more anteriorlyintertubercular sulcus - where the long head of the biceps brachii tendon is located
11Humerus - Surface Features anatomical neckdeltoid tuberosity where the deltoid tendon attachesCapitulum - a round knob-like process on the lateral distal humerusTrochlea - medial to the capitulum, is a spool-shaped projection on the distal humerus
12Humerus - Surface Features Coronoid fossa - anterior depression that receives the coronoid process of the ulna during forearm flexionOlecranon fossa - posterior depression that receives the olecranon of the ulna during forearm extensionThe medial and lateral epicondyles are bony projections to which the forearm muscles attach
13Skeleton of the Forearm - Ulna The longer of the two forearm bonesLocated medial to the radiusThe shaft of these bones are connected by an interosseus membraneFeaturesOlecranon - the large, prominent proximal end, the “tip of your elbow”Coronoid process - the anterior “lip” of the proximal ulnaTrochlear notch - the deep fossa that receives the trochlea of the humerus during elbow flexionStyloid process - the thin cylindrical projection on the posterior side of the ulna’s head
14Radius Lies lateral to the ulna (thumb side of the forearm) The head (disc-shaped) and neck are at the proximal endThe head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and the radial notch of the ulnaRadial tuberosity - medial and inferior to neck, attachment site for biceps brachii muscleStyloid process - large distal projection on lateral side of radius
15Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Right ulna and radius in relation to the humerus and carpals -- Figure 8.6Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
16Articulations formed by the ulna and radius -- Figure 8.7 Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
17Skeleton of the HandThe carpus (wrist) consists of 8 small bones (carpals)Two rows of carpal bonesProximal row - scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiformDistal row - trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamateScaphoid - most commonly fracturedCarpal tunnel - space between carpal bones and flexor retinaculum
18Metacarpals and Phalanges Five metacarpals - numbered I-V, lateral to medial14 phalanges - two in the thumb (pollex) and three in each of the other fingersEach phalanx has a base, shaft, and headJoints - carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal
19Right wrist and hand in relation to ulna and radius -- Figure 8.8
20Pelvic (Hip) GirdleEach os coxa (hip) bone consists of three bones that fuse together: ilium, pubis, and ischiumThe two os coxae bones are joined anteriorly by the pubic symphysis (fibrocartilage)Joined posteriorly by the sacrum forming the sacroiliac joints
22The Ilium Largest of the three hip bones Ilium is the superior part of the hip boneConsists of a superior ala and inferior body which forms the acetabulum (the socket for the head of the femur)Superior border - iliac crestGreater sciatic notch - allows passage of sciatic nerve
23Ischium and PubisIschium - inferior and posterior part of the hip boneIschial tuberosity- “sit bones”Pubis - inferior and anterior part of the hip boneSuperior and inferior rami, body, tubericle
28Skeleton of the Thigh - Femur and Patella Femur - longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the bodyProximally, the head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone forming the hip (coxal) jointNeck - distal to head, common site of fractureDistally, the medial and lateral condyles articulate with the condyles of the tibia forming the knee jointAlso articulates with patella
29FemurGreater and lesser trochanters are projections where large muscles attachGluteal tuberosity and linea aspera - attachment sites for the large hip musclesIntercondylar fossa - depression between the condylesMedial and lateral epicondyles - muscle site attachments for the knee muscles
31Patella Largest sesamoid bone in the body Superior surface is the base Inferior, narrower surface is the apexThick articular cartilage lines the posterior surfaceIncreases the leverage of the quadriceps femoris musclePatellofemoral stress syndrome - “runner’s knee”
33Tibia (shin bone) The larger, medial weight-bearing bone of the leg The lateral and medial condyles at the proximal end articulate with the femurIt articulates distally with the talus and fibulaTibial tuberosity - attachment site for the patellar ligamentMedial malleolus - medial surface of distal end (medial surface of ankle joint)
34Fibula The smaller, laterally placed bone of the leg Non-weight bearingThe head forms the proximal tibiofibular jointLateral malleolus - distal end, articulates with the tibia and the talus at the ankle
36Tibia and Fibula Figure 8.15 Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
37Skeleton of the Foot - Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges Seven tarsal bones - talus (articulates with tibia and fibula), calcaneus (the heel bone, the largest and strongest), navicular, cuboid and three cuneiformsFive metatarsals - (I-V) base, shaft, head14 phalanges (big toe is the hallux)Tarsus = ankle