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The Appendicular Skeleton

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Presentation on theme: "The Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Appendicular Skeleton

2 The Appendicular Skeleton
2 pairs of limbs & 2 girdles Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs 3 Segmented limbs: Upper = arm Arm Forearm Hand Lower = leg Thigh Leg Foot

3 Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle)
Clavicle – anterior: collar bone Sternal end attaches to the manubrium medially Acromial end articulates with the scapula laterally Scapula – posterior: shoulder blade

4 Pectoral Girdle Attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton The joints are freely movable in many directions

5 Scapulae: triangular, paired, but don’t connect in back (adds thoracic flexibility)

6 Scapula Also known as the shoulder blade
Large, flat triangular bone situated in the posterior part of the thorax The glenoid cavity is a depression inferior to the acromion. It articulates with the humerus head to form the shoulder joint. The coracoid process is where muscles attach.

7 Scapula Glenoid cavity articulates with the humerus
Acromium articulates with clavicle Coracoid process projects anteriorly

8 Clavicle Also known as the collarbone
Long, slender S-shaped bone that is horizontally above the first rib

9 Upper Limb

10 Upper extremity Arm = upper arm Forearm - Radius & ulna Hand includes:
Between shoulder and elbow (humerus) Forearm - Radius & ulna Hand includes: Wrist (carpus) Palm (metacarpus) Fingers (phalanges)

11 Humerus Longest and largest bone of the upper limb
Articulates with the scapula at the shoulder & both the ulna and radius at the elbow

12 Upper arm Humerus is the only bone
Head of humerus fits into glenoid cavity of scapula Articulates with the ulna& with the radius Medial & lateral epicondyles

13 Right humerus, anterior view

14 Forearm 2 bones: Ulna Radius
Radius is thinner proximally & wide distally Ulna is slightly longer

15 Ulna Located on the medial side of the forearm (pinky side)
Longer than the radius

16 Radius Located on the lateral side of the forearm (thumb side)

17 Right forearm bones, anterior view

18 In the anatomical position, the radius is lateral (thumb side)
 with pronation the palm faces posteriorly and the bones cross Left forearm Anatomical position prone

19 Proximal and distal joints of the forearm
proximal ulna

20 Carpus (Wrist) 8 carpals
Held together by ligaments with four bones in each row Named for their shapes Short bones

21 The carpals in the top row are the:
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, and Pisiform The carpals in the bottom row are the: Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, and Hamate

22 Hand Proximal is “wrist” – 8 carpal bones Palm of hand - 5 metacarpals
Fingers (or digits) consist of long bones called phalanges Thumb (“pollex”) Right hand, 2 views:


24 Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)
Strongly attached to axial skeleton (sacrum) Deep sockets More stable than pectoral (shoulder) girdle Less freedom of movement Made up of the paired hip bones “Bony pelvis” is basin-like structure: hip bones & the sacrum & coccyx

25 Hip bone: 3 separate bones in childhood which fuse
Ilium Ischium Pubis


27 Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch
Forms part of “acetabulum” (hip socket) which receives ball-shaped head of femur ilium ilium

28 Hip bones

29 Pelvis and childbearing
Male/female differences: Large & heavy vs light & delicate Heart shaped pelvic inlet vs oval Narrow deep true pelvis vs wide & shallow Narrow outlet vs wide Less than 90 degree pubic arch vs more than 90 degree

30 Lower limb Thigh: femur Leg (lower leg) Tibia Fibula Foot

31 Thigh Femur is largest, longest and strongest bone in the body
Head fits in socket (acetabulum) of pelvis Neck is weakest Greater trochanter Distal: lateral & medial condyles & epicondyles Patella: sesmoid bone

32 Right femur, anterior view

33 Leg Tibia: shin bone Fibula Medial and lateral condyles
Tibial tuberosity Distal medial malleolus (medial ankle) Fibula Distal lateral malleolus (lateral ankle)

34 Right lower leg, anterior view

35 Foot Tarsus: 7 tarsal bones 5 metatarsals 14 phalanges
Talus: articulates with tibia and fibula anteriorly and calcaneus posteriorly Calcaneus: heel bone Smaller cuboid, navicular, and 3 cunieforms (medial, intermediate and lateral) 5 metatarsals 14 phalanges Big toe = hallux

36 Right foot, superior (dorsal) view and inferior (plantar) view

37 Right foot, lateral and medial views

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