4LEARNING OUTCOMESTo explain the necessity for support and locomotion in humans and animals,To describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion,To explain how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and animals,To name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of the human body
5The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals WHY DO HUMANS & ANIMALS NEED SUPPORT?To find the foodTo find partner for matingTo protect/escape from their predatorTo shelter from bad environment
6The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals Without support, animals & humans would not be able to maintain their body shape their body collapse under the weight of their own tissues.Support are provided by some form of skeleton.Hydrostatic skeletonExoskeletonendoskeleton
7Support are provided by some form of skeleton: Hydrostatic skeletonExoskeletonEndoskeleton
8HYDROSTATIC SKELETONA fluid-filled internal body cavity in which the fluid is held under pressure .This also can be usedd to maintan the body shape & provide support for internal organThe cavity is surrounded by muscles arranged in layers.The body shape of the animal changes as these muscles contract & relax.
9The animals are soft & flexible, the hydrostatic fluid does protect body parts by acting as a shock absorber.Examples : earthworm, jellyfish, leech & caterpillar.
11EXOSKELETONA rigid outer covering usually made up of protein, chitins calcium salt.Insects – the cuticle (covered with wax to prevent water loss from the body), cover the body’s surface.The exoskeleton is jointed / hinged = certain points of the skeleton are flexible & can bend enabling the movement.
12Exoskeleton restrict the growth of animals the exoskeleton must be shed from time to time in order for the animal to grow. (ecdysis)Also found in the shells of molluscs & the bony plates of tortoises.Examples : insects, crabs, lobsters, tortoise
14ENDOSKELETONFound in the bodies of all vertebrates including fish, amphibians & birds.Consist of hard skeleton of bones & cartilage found inside the body – made up of calcium & phosphate.Works with the muscular system to perform movement & locomotion. It support the body & protects the organs.
16The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals The functions of skeleton :Provide shape & supportEnables movement (locomotion)Protects internal organsStores calcium & phosphate ionsProduces blood cellsA firm base for the attachment of muscles
17The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals Problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion,gravitational force, friction & resistance when moving aroundAspect need to be considered when describing the locomotion of an animal :-Stability – when it moves, it is temporarily unstable, but its stability will be restored when it stops.Support – must have enough support from its body’s skeletonPropulsion – must be propelled in order to move
18HOW TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS? RESISTANCE & FRICTION – by streamlining their bodies.GRAVITATIONAL FORCE – most animals have their own supporting structures (fins – fishes, wings – birds & strong limbs – tetrapods & humans) provide the propulsive force to overcome the problem
19The skeletal system together with its muscles are designed specially to overcome the problems associated with support & locomotion of humans & animals.To initiate locomotion, the force required is generated by contraction of muscles, whereas the movement is transmitted by the skeleton.
22THE HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM The adult human skeleton consist of 206 bones.Divided into two main parts : the axial skeleton & the appendicular skeleton.The axial skeleton : made up of the bones that form the vertical axis of the body.It supports & protects the organs of the head, neck & trunk. (skull, vertebral column, rib cage)
23The appendicular skeleton : made up of the bones that are attached to the axial skeleton. Include bones of the limbs, the pectoral girdle & the pelvic girdle.
24FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON PROTECTION – the skull protects the brain, the vertebral column protects the spinal cord & the rib cage protects internal organs such as the heart.SUPPORT – act as a framework to support the soft body parts, to maintain the upright position & to keep the body stable.
25FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON MOVEMENT – bones interact with the skeletal muscle.BLOOD CELL FORMATION – most of the blood cells are formed in the bone marrow of the long bones.MINERAL STORAGE – bones act as a reservoir for calcium & phosphorus.
28THE SKULLMade up of 8 cranial bones & 14 facial bones including the upper jaw & the lower jaw.The facial bones also provide support & protect the entrances to the respiratory system.
29SKULL PARTS FUNCTIONS 8 Cranial bones Are fused to form immovable joints called sutures.Protect the brain & the sensory organs.Eye socketsto protect the eye ball.Nasal bonesto support nose tissuesEar holesto protect inner part of earsMaxilla (upper jaw)to support upper teethMandible (lower jaw)to support lower teeth, to enable eating & talking.
30VERTEBRAL COLUMN Known as the spine/ backbone. Extends from the base of the skull to the pelvic girdle.Made up of 33 vertebrae separated from each other by discs of cartilage (intervertebral discs) which absorb shocks & serve as flex point.This S-shaped column supports & balances the body in a vertical plane & protects the spinal cord, supports the skull & provides a base for the attachment of muscles to the back.
31VERTEBRAL COLUMNThe vertebrae differ in structure & function in different regions of the vertebral column.A vertebra typically consists of a main body (the centrum), a neural arch & transverse processes.
33VERTEBRAL COLUMN NEURAL SPINE TRANSVERSE PROCESS STRUCTUREFUNCTIONNEURAL SPINEProvides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles.TRANSVERSE PROCESSNEURAL ARCH/ VERTEBRAL FORAMENProtects the spinal cord.CENTRUMProvides support & absorbs shocks.NEURAL CANALProvides the passage of nerves from the spinal cord.ARTICULATING SURFACEProvides surface which articulates with the next vertebra.
34TYPES OF VERTEBRAE TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTERCervical VertebraBelow the skull71st one – atlasvertebra2nd – axisvertebraeLarge neuralcanal/vertebralforamenShort neural spineFlat centrumShort transverseprocessesHas a pair ofvertebrarterialcanals
38THORACIC VERTEBRA TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTERThoracic VertebraThorax12Neural canal/vertebral foramenis smaller thancervical vertebra’sLong neural spine/spinous processes(for attachment ofback muscle)Thick & big centrumShort transverseprocesses
41LUMBAR VERTEBRA TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTERLumbar VertebraWaist5small neural canal/vertebral foramenshort neural spinethick & big centrumlong transverseprocesses formuscle attachment
43SACRUM & COCCYX TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTERSacrumPelvic region5 fusedVertebrae fused toeach otherHas four pairs ofopeningsTriangular shapeCoccyxCaudal region4 fusedBones fused to each other forming a triangular shape which tapers at one end
46THE STERNUM & RIBSThe rib cage consists of 12 pairs of ribs with the thoracic vertebrae at the back portion of the body & join to the sternum in the front portion.Movement of the rib cage are brought about by intercostal muscles between the ribs.
47THE STERNUM & RIBSThe sternum & ribs enclose & protect the internal organs (the lungs & heart) & play an important role in breathing.
50PECTORAL GIRDLE Consist of scapula & clavicle. Links the upper limbs bones to the axial skeleton.The scapula : bound by muscles to the back of the thorax. It is a flat, triangular bone which provides a surface for the attachment of muscles.
51The clavicle : a rod-shaped bone placed horizontally above the scapula. It links the scapula to the sternum. It limits the movements of the scapula.
53PELVIC GIRDLEConsists of 6 fused bones – support the weight of the body from the vertebral column.Also protect the internal organs – urinary bladder & reproductive organs.Made up of two halves, each consists of 3 bones (ilium, pubis & ischium)
54PELVIC GIRDLEThe pelvic girdle is attached to the sacrum of the vertebral column.The asetabulum / socket for femur articulates with each side of the pelvic girdle at the hip joint.
56FORELIMB BONES Consists of humerus, radius & ulna. The Humerus : The long bones of the upper armRounded head end fits into an open socket of the scapula forming a ball-and-socket joint (allow movement in all planes)
57The posterior end of the humerus forms a hinge joint with the ulna with the ulna- radius bones, allowing movement in one plane only.The radius & ulna :The bones on the forearm in which the ulna is longer than the radius.It has a notch at its upper end which articulates the humerus at the elbow.
58The carpals : The metacarpals : The phalanges : The bones that form the wrist.Consists of 8 small bonesThe metacarpals :The rod-shaped ones that form the palm.The phalanges :The bones that form the fingers.
59HINDLIMB BONES Consists of femur, tibia & fibula. The femur : The longest, strongest & heaviest bone in the body.Support the tight.Play an important role in maintaining the body’s upright position & in locomotion as it is attached to massive muscles.The head of femur fits into the pelvic girdle to form a joint.Other end, articulates with the tibia & fibula at the knee.
60The tibia & fibula : The bones of the lower leg. Support the shank. Tibia larger than fibula & is the weight-bearing bone of the leg.Fibula is a long & thin bone – not bear any load more important for attachment of muscles than for support.Articulate with the tarsals of the ankle.
61The tarsals : The metatarsals : The phalanges : The patella/kneecap : The 7 bones that form the ankle.The metatarsals :The 5 rod-shaped bones that form the foot.The phalanges :The bones that form the toes.The patella/kneecap :A small rounded, movable bone.Protect the knee joint.