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LOCOMOTION AND TRANSPORT. CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2 LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT IN HUMANS & ANIMALS TYPES OF SKELETON Exoskeleton Endoskeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "LOCOMOTION AND TRANSPORT. CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2 LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT IN HUMANS & ANIMALS TYPES OF SKELETON Exoskeleton Endoskeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 LOCOMOTION AND TRANSPORT

2 CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2 LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT IN HUMANS & ANIMALS TYPES OF SKELETON Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Hydrostatic skeleton Muscles, ligaments & tendon Birds Fish Grasshopper Earthworms LOCOMOTION SUPPORT IN PLANTS AQUATIC PLANTS TERRESTRIAL PLANTS

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4 LEARNING OUTCOMES  To explain the necessity for support and locomotion in humans and animals,  To describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion,  To explain how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and animals,  To name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of the human body

5 The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals WHY DO HUMANS & ANIMALS NEED SUPPORT? 1. To find the food 2. To find partner for mating 3. To protect/escape from their predator 4. To shelter from bad environment

6 The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals  Without support, animals & humans would not be able to maintain their body shape  their body collapse under the weight of their own tissues.  Support are provided by some form of skeleton.  Hydrostatic skeleton  Exoskeleton  endoskeleton

7 Support are provided by some form of skeleton: 1.Hydrostatic skeleton 2.Exoskeleton 3.Endoskeleton

8 HYDROSTATIC SKELETON  A fluid-filled internal body cavity in which the fluid is held under pressure. This also can be usedd to maintan the body shape & provide support for internal organ  The cavity is surrounded by muscles arranged in layers.  The body shape of the animal changes as these muscles contract & relax.

9  The animals are soft & flexible, the hydrostatic fluid does protect body parts by acting as a shock absorber.  Examples : earthworm, jellyfish, leech & caterpillar.

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11 EXOSKELETON  A rigid outer covering usually made up of protein, chitins calcium salt.  Insects – the cuticle (covered with wax to prevent water loss from the body), cover the body’s surface.  The exoskeleton is jointed / hinged = certain points of the skeleton are flexible & can bend  enabling the movement.

12  Exoskeleton restrict the growth of animals  the exoskeleton must be shed from time to time in order for the animal to grow. (ecdysis)  Also found in the shells of molluscs & the bony plates of tortoises.  Examples : insects, crabs, lobsters, tortoise

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14 ENDOSKELETON  Found in the bodies of all vertebrates including fish, amphibians & birds.  Consist of hard skeleton of bones & cartilage found inside the body – made up of calcium & phosphate.  Works with the muscular system to perform movement & locomotion. It support the body & protects the organs.

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16 The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals  The functions of skeleton :  Provide shape & support  Enables movement (locomotion)  Protects internal organs  Stores calcium & phosphate ions  Produces blood cells  A firm base for the attachment of muscles

17 The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals Problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion,  gravitational force, friction & resistance when moving around  Aspect need to be considered when describing the locomotion of an animal :-  Stability – when it moves, it is temporarily unstable, but its stability will be restored when it stops.  Support – must have enough support from its body’s skeleton  Propulsion – must be propelled in order to move

18 HOW TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS?  RESISTANCE & FRICTION – by streamlining their bodies.  GRAVITATIONAL FORCE – most animals have their own supporting structures (fins – fishes, wings – birds & strong limbs – tetrapods & humans)  provide the propulsive force to overcome the problem

19  The skeletal system together with its muscles are designed specially to overcome the problems associated with support & locomotion of humans & animals.  To initiate locomotion, the force required is generated by contraction of muscles, whereas the movement is transmitted by the skeleton.

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22 THE HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM  The adult human skeleton consist of 206 bones.  Divided into two main parts : the axial skeleton & the appendicular skeleton.  The axial skeleton : made up of the bones that form the vertical axis of the body.  It supports & protects the organs of the head, neck & trunk. (skull, vertebral column, rib cage)

23  The appendicular skeleton : made up of the bones that are attached to the axial skeleton.  Include bones of the limbs, the pectoral girdle & the pelvic girdle.

24 FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON  PROTECTION – the skull protects the brain, the vertebral column protects the spinal cord & the rib cage protects internal organs such as the heart.  SUPPORT – act as a framework to support the soft body parts, to maintain the upright position & to keep the body stable.

25 FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON  MOVEMENT – bones interact with the skeletal muscle.  BLOOD CELL FORMATION – most of the blood cells are formed in the bone marrow of the long bones.  MINERAL STORAGE – bones act as a reservoir for calcium & phosphorus.

26 SKELETAL SYSTEM HUMAN SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON SKULL VERTEBRAL COLUMN CERVICAL THORACIC LUMBAR SACRUM COCCYX RIB CAGE APPENDICULAR SKELETON PECTORAL GIRDLE PELVIC GIRDLE FORELIMB BONES HINDLIMB BONES

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28 THE SKULL  Made up of 8 cranial bones & 14 facial bones including the upper jaw & the lower jaw.  The facial bones also provide support & protect the entrances to the respiratory system.

29 SKULL PARTSFUNCTIONS 8 Cranial bones Are fused to form immovable joints called sutures. Are fused to form immovable joints called sutures. Protect the brain & the sensory organs. Protect the brain & the sensory organs. Eye sockets to protect the eye ball. to protect the eye ball. Nasal bones to support nose tissues to support nose tissues Ear holes to protect inner part of ears to protect inner part of ears Maxilla (upper jaw) to support upper teeth to support upper teeth Mandible (lower jaw) to support lower teeth, to enable eating & talking. to support lower teeth, to enable eating & talking.

30 VERTEBRAL COLUMN  Known as the spine/ backbone.  Extends from the base of the skull to the pelvic girdle.  Made up of 33 vertebrae separated from each other by discs of cartilage (intervertebral discs) which absorb shocks & serve as flex point.  This S-shaped column supports & balances the body in a vertical plane & protects the spinal cord, supports the skull & provides a base for the attachment of muscles to the back.

31 VERTEBRAL COLUMN  The vertebrae differ in structure & function in different regions of the vertebral column.  A vertebra typically consists of a main body (the centrum), a neural arch & transverse processes.

32 VERTEBRAL COLUMN

33 STRUCTUREFUNCTION NEURAL SPINE Provides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles. TRANSVERSE PROCESS Provides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles. NEURAL ARCH/ VERTEBRAL FORAMEN Protects the spinal cord. CENTRUM Provides support & absorbs shocks. NEURAL CANAL Provides the passage of nerves from the spinal cord. ARTICULATING SURFACE Provides surface which articulates with the next vertebra.

34 TYPES OF VERTEBRAE TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTER Cervical Vertebra Below the skull 7 1 st one – atlas 1 st one – atlas vertebra vertebra 2 nd – axis 2 nd – axis vertebrae vertebrae Large neural Large neural canal/vertebral canal/vertebral foramen foramen Short neural spine Short neural spine Flat centrum Flat centrum Short transverse Short transverse processes processes Has a pair of Has a pair of vertebrarterial vertebrarterial canals canals

35 CERVICAL VERTEBRA

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38 TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTER Thoracic Vertebra Thorax12 Neural canal/ Neural canal/ vertebral foramen vertebral foramen is smaller than is smaller than cervical vertebra’s cervical vertebra’s Long neural spine/ Long neural spine/ spinous processes spinous processes (for attachment of (for attachment of back muscle) back muscle) Thick & big centrum Thick & big centrum Short transverse Short transverse processes processes THORACIC VERTEBRA

39 THORACIC VERTEBRA (12)

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41 LUMBAR VERTEBRA TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTER Lumbar Vertebra Waist5 small neural canal/ small neural canal/ vertebral foramen vertebral foramen short neural spine short neural spine thick & big centrum thick & big centrum long transverse long transverse processes for processes for muscle attachment muscle attachment

42 LUMBAR VERTEBRA

43 SACRUM & COCCYX TYPE OF VERTEBRAE POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE MAIN CHARACTER Sacrum Pelvic region 5 fused Vertebrae fused to Vertebrae fused to each other each other Has four pairs of Has four pairs of openings openings Triangular shape Triangular shape Coccyx Caudal region 4 fused Bones fused to each other forming a triangular shape which tapers at one end Bones fused to each other forming a triangular shape which tapers at one end

44 SACRUM & COCCYX

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46  The rib cage consists of 12 pairs of ribs with the thoracic vertebrae at the back portion of the body & join to the sternum in the front portion.  Movement of the rib cage are brought about by intercostal muscles between the ribs. THE STERNUM & RIBS

47  The sternum & ribs enclose & protect the internal organs (the lungs & heart) & play an important role in breathing. THE STERNUM & RIBS

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50  Consist of scapula & clavicle.  Links the upper limbs bones to the axial skeleton.  The scapula : bound by muscles to the back of the thorax. It is a flat, triangular bone which provides a surface for the attachment of muscles. PECTORAL GIRDLE

51 The clavicle : a rod- shaped bone placed horizontally above the scapula. The clavicle : a rod- shaped bone placed horizontally above the scapula. It links the scapula to the sternum. It limits the movements of the scapula. It links the scapula to the sternum. It limits the movements of the scapula.

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53  Consists of 6 fused bones – support the weight of the body from the vertebral column.  Also protect the internal organs – urinary bladder & reproductive organs.  Made up of two halves, each consists of 3 bones (ilium, pubis & ischium) PELVIC GIRDLE

54  The pelvic girdle is attached to the sacrum of the vertebral column.  The asetabulum / socket for femur articulates with each side of the pelvic girdle at the hip joint. PELVIC GIRDLE

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56 FORELIMB BONES  Consists of humerus, radius & ulna.  The Humerus :  The long bones of the upper arm  Rounded head end fits into an open socket of the scapula  forming a ball-and-socket joint (allow movement in all planes)

57  The posterior end of the humerus forms a hinge joint with the ulna with the ulna- radius bones, allowing movement in one plane only.  The radius & ulna :  The bones on the forearm in which the ulna is longer than the radius.  It has a notch at its upper end which articulates the humerus at the elbow.

58  The carpals :  The bones that form the wrist.  Consists of 8 small bones  The metacarpals :  The rod-shaped ones that form the palm.  The phalanges :  The bones that form the fingers.

59 HINDLIMB BONES  Consists of femur, tibia & fibula.  The femur :  The longest, strongest & heaviest bone in the body.  Support the tight.  Play an important role in maintaining the body’s upright position & in locomotion as it is attached to massive muscles.  The head of femur fits into the pelvic girdle to form a joint.  Other end, articulates with the tibia & fibula at the knee.

60  The tibia & fibula :  The bones of the lower leg.  Support the shank.  Tibia larger than fibula & is the weight- bearing bone of the leg.  Fibula is a long & thin bone – not bear any load  more important for attachment of muscles than for support.  Articulate with the tarsals of the ankle.

61  The tarsals :  The 7 bones that form the ankle.  The metatarsals :  The 5 rod-shaped bones that form the foot.  The phalanges :  The bones that form the toes.  The patella/kneecap :  A small rounded, movable bone.  Protect the knee joint.


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