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Skull Images.

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Presentation on theme: "Skull Images."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skull Images

2 Lab Activity #4.1 Overview of the Skeletal System

3 Skeletal System 1. What are the two subdivisions of the skeleton? –Axial Skeleton: bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body –Appendicular Skeleton: bones that form the limbs and girdles

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5 Skeletal System Examples of Bones: –Axial: The Skull (Frontal bone, Mandible, Maxilla, Zygomatic bone, Nasal bone) Sternum, Ribs, Vertebrae, Sacrum, Coccyx –Appendicular: Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges (Fingers), Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges (Toes), Coxal Bone (Hip)

6 Skeletal System 3. What are the four body structures that are included in the skeletal system? –Joints, Cartilages, Ligaments, and Bones

7 Skeletal System 4. What are some major functions of the skeletal system? –Support of the body –Protection of soft organs –Movement due to attached skeletal muscles –Storage of minerals and fats –Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)

8 Skeletal System 5. What are the most important minerals that are stored by bones? –Calcium and Phosphorous

9 Skeletal System 6. What is the total number of bones in the adult skeleton? –206 Bones

10 Skeletal System 7. Four bone classifications… –Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus –Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals

11 Skeletal System –Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum –Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip

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13 Skeletal System 8. Explain the following bone markings. –Tuberosity: large, rounded projection that may be roughened –Crest: narrow ridge of bone –Trochanter: very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process –Tubercle: small rounded projection –Epicondyle: raised area on or above a condyle

14 Skeletal System –Ramus: armlike bar of bone –Condyle: rounded articular projection –Head: Expansion of bone carried on a narrow neck

15 Skeletal System –Meatus: canal-like passageway –Sinus: cavity within a bone; filled with air and lined with mucous membrane –Fossa: shallow depression in a bone –Fissure: narrow, slitlike opening –Foramen: round or oval opening through a bone

16 Skeletal System 9. What are the three major parts of the axial skeleton? –Skull, Vertebral column, Bony thorax (ribs and sternum) 10. What are the two sets of bones of the skull, and what are their functions? –Cranium: encloses and protects the brain –Facial: holds in eyes, allows the facial muscles to show feelings

17 Skeletal System 11. What joins most of the bones together in the skull? –Sutures: interlocking, immovable joints 12. What opening is on the bottom of the skull that allows the spinal cord to connect to the brain? In what bone of the skull is the opening located? –Foramen magnum, located in the occipital bone

18 Skeletal System 13. What is the largest facial bone? –The mandible (jaw bone) 14. What is unique about the hyoid bone? Where is it located at? –Does not directly articulate (touch) with any other bone –Anchored by ligaments to the temporal bone, serves as a movable base for the tongue

19 Skeletal System 15. What are some special characteristics of the fetal skull? –Infant’s face small in comparison to cranium –Skull large in comparison to infant’s body –Skeleton unfinished; has areas of hyaline cartilage that must be converted to bone –Fontanels: fibrous membranes between cranial bones that allow fetal skull to be compressed during birth, allow brain to grow

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21 Skeletal System 16. What are the special names of the first and second vertebrae? –First: atlas –Second: axis 17. What separates single vertebrae? What type of connective tissue are these separators made of? –Intervertebral discs, made of fibrocartilage

22 Skeletal System 18. Look at image 5.15 in your book. Give a description of each of the following spinal curvatures. –Scoliosis: Lateral curvature of the spine –Kyphosis: Curvature of upper back / neck (hunchback) –Lordosis: Curvature of lower back / lumbar (swayback)

23 Skeletal System 19. What is the nickname of the coccyx? –Tailbone 20. What is the nickname of the sternum? –Breastbone

24 Skeletal System 21. Ribs –Total Number of Rib Pairs: 12 –False Ribs: bottom 5 pairs, attach indirectly or not attached to sternum –True Ribs: top 7 pairs, attach directly to sternum by costal cartilage

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