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Section A: Applied Anatomy and Physiology 1. The skeletal system.

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1 Section A: Applied Anatomy and Physiology 1. The skeletal system

2 Syllabus General overview of the skeletal system to include the functions of the skeleton, the axial and appendicular skeleton

3 Components of the human skeleton Bones: Bone is a tough and rigid form of connective tissue. It is the weight bearing organ of human body and it is responsible for almost all strength of human skeleton. Cartilages: Cartilage is also a form of connective tissue but is not as tough and rigid as bone. The main difference in the cartilage and bone is the mineralization factor. Bones are highly mineralized with calcium salts while cartilages are not. Joints: Joints are important components of human skeleton because they make the human skeleton mobile. A joint occurs between “two or more bones”, “bone and cartilage” and “cartilage and cartilage”.


5 Axial skeleton It consists of Skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage. – Skull: Skull is that part of human skeleton that forms the bony framework of the head. It consists of 22 different bones that are divided into two groups: bones of cranium and bones of face. – Vertebral Column: It is a flexible column of vertebrae, connecting the trunk of human body to the skull and appendages. It is composed of 33 vertebrae which are divided into 5 regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal. – Rib Cage: It is a bony cage enclosing vital human organs formed by the sternum and ribs. There are 12 pairs of ribs that are divided into three groups: True ribs, False ribs, and Floating ribs.


7 Appendicular skeleton It consists of Shoulder girdle, Skeleton of upper limb, Pelvic girdle and Skeleton of lower limb. – Shoulder Girdle: It attaches the upper limb to body trunk and is formed by two bones: clavicle and scapula.Clavicle is a modified long bone and is subcutaneous throughout its position. It is also known as the beauty bone. For more details on clavicle, visit:”"Scapula is a pear shaped flat bone that contains the glenoid fossa for the formation of shoulder joint. It possesses three important processes: Spine of scapula, Acromion process and Coracoid process. – Skeleton of Upper limb: The skeleton of each upper limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are: Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals (8), Metacarpals (5), Phalanges (14). – Pelvic Girdle: There are two pelvic girdles (one for each lower limb) but unlike the pectoral girdles, they are jointed with each other at symphysis pubis. Each pelvic girdle is a single bone in adults and is made up of three components: Ileum, Ischium and Pubis. – Skeleton of Lower limb: The skeleton of each lower limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are; Femur, Tibia, Patella, Tarsals (7), Metatarsals (5), Phalanges (14).


9 Functions of the skeleton STRENGTH, SUPPORT AND SHAPE: It gives strength, support and shape to the body. Without a hard and rigid skeletal system, human body cannot stand upright, and it will become just a bag of soft tissues without any proper shape PROTECTION OF DELICATE ORGANS: In areas like the rib cage and skull, the skeleton protects inner soft but vital organs like heart and brain from external shocks. Any damage to these organs can prove fatal, therefore protective function of skeleton is very important LEVERAGE FOR MOVEMENTS: Bones of the human skeleton in all parts of body provide attachment to the muscles. These muscles provide motor power for producing movements of body parts. In these movements the parts of skeleton acts like levers of different types thus producing movements according to the needs of the human body. PRODUCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS: Bones like the sternum, and heads of tibia have hemopoeitic activity (blood cells production). These are the sites of production of new blood cells.

10 Long bones Long bones are some of the longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus and Tibia but are also some of the smallest including the Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges. The classification of a long bone includes having a body which is longer than it is wide, with growth plates (epiphysis) at either end, having a hard outer surface of compact bone and a spongy inner known an cancellous bone containing bone marrow. Both ends of the bone are covered in hyaline cartilage to help protect the bone and aid shock absorbtion.

11 Short bones Short bones are defined as being approximately as wide as they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability with little movement. Examples of short bones are the Carpals and Tarsals - the wrist and foot bones. They consist of only a thin layer of compact, hard bone with cancellous bone on the inside along with relatively large amounts of bone marrow.

12 Flat bones Flat bones are as they sound, strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. The classic example of a flat bone is the Scapula (shoulder blade). The Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), os coxae (hip bone) Pelvis and Ribs are also classified as flat bones. Anterior and posterior surfaces are formed of compact bone to provide strength for protection with the centre consisiting of cancellous (spongy) bone and varying amounts of bone marrow. In adults, the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones.

13 Irregular bones These are bones in the body which do not fall into any other category, due to their non- uniform shape. Good examples of these are the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw). They primarily consist of cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of compact bone.

14 Sesamoid bones Sesamoid bones are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon. The most obvious example of this is the Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon. Other sesamoid bones are the Pisiform (smallest of the Carpals) and the two small bones at the base of the 1st Metatarsal. Sesamoid bones are usually present in a tendon where it passes over a joint which serves to protect the tendon.

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