2The Skeleton is the name given to the collection off bones in thebody and the tissues thatconnect them.
3The skeleton has 5 major functions. 1- It protects our vital organs such as the brain,,the heart, and the lungs..2- It gives us structure. Without it we would justbe a blob of blood and tissue on the floor.3-It allows us to move. Because our muscles areattached to our bones, when our musclesmove, they move the bones.4- It stores calcium. Which keeps bones and teeth hard.5- It makes Red and White blood cells. Mainly red blood cells. White blood cells are also produced in your lymph nodes.
4Skeleton Facts • When you were born, your skeleton had close to 350 bones.• By the time you become an adult, youwill only have around 206 bones.• This is because, as you grow, some of thebones fuse together to form one bonesuch as the skull.
5…Skeleton Facts• The smallest bones in the body are found in the ear. (3mm)• The longest bone in the body is the femur.• Over half the body's bones are in the handsand feet.• As your bones grow, you get taller. Girlsusually stop growing around age 16, and 18 for boys.• Our bones are 5 times stronger than steel if they are the same weight.
6Organization of the Human Skeleton • Your skeleton is made upof two parts; the axial skeletonand the appendicularskeleton.Green = AxialPurple = Appendicular
8The Appendicular Skeleton • pectoral girdles (2 x 2) 4• Arms (3 x 2) 6• Wrists (x 2) 16• hands (19 x 2) 38• pelvis 2• legs (4 x 2) 8• ankles (7 x 2) 14• feet (19 x 2) 38• total 126Purple Area
9There are Four Main types of bone Flat: like those found in the skull; provide protectionfor soft tissues and points for muscle attachmentLong: found in the arms and legs;provide strength and supportShort: found in the wrists and ankles;not much longer than they are wide; provide flexibilityIrregular: backbone, middle ear; have shapes relatedto a specialized function(ex: vertebra have small extensions for muscleattachments and an opening for the spinal cord)
11Bones • Bones get their strength and rigidity from hard deposits of minerals such ascalcium andphosphate.• Bones are strongbut light becausethey are hollowand filled with asubstance calledBone Marrow.
12Bone Marrow • Bone marrow is found in the hollow interior of bones and is a spongy, fattytissue that houses stem cells. These cellscan transform themselves into platelets,white or red blood cells that are neededfor immunity and circulation.• Red marrow is found in some flat bones(hip, skull, vertebrae and rib bones) andyellow marrow is a fat tissue storage sitein the middle of some longer bones.
14Joints • The place where bones meet. • Most joints allow our bones to move (the skull bones are an exception.)• There are several types of body joints including:• Hinge (elbow)• Ball-and-socket (Hip and shoulder)• Pivot (head on spine)• Saddle (interlocking bones in the thumb)• Gliding (bones slide past each other)
15Types of Joints Hinge Joint • A hinge joint allows extension and flexion ofan appendage.• Note: your knee is amodified hinge joint.
16Types of Joints Ball & Socket Joint • A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They arefound in the hips and shoulders.
17Types of Joints Pivot Joint • Pivot joints allow rotation around an axis. Theneck and forearms have pivot joints. In theneck the occipital bone spins over the top ofthe axis. In the forearms the radius twists as itturns over the ulna.
18Types of Joints Saddle Joint • A saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down, but does not allow forpivoting like a ball and socket joint.
19Types of Joints Gliding Joint • In a gliding or plane joint bones slide pasteach other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints aregliding joints
21Cranium and Facial Bones Nasal BonesThe cranial bones include the flat bones that make up the vault for your brain. Their main function is to protect the brain from trauma.
22The Vertebral ColumnThe spineMade up of 26 irregularly shaped bonesEach vertebra has one round drum shapedbody with 3 wing-like projectionsThe vertebrae are held together by bandsof ligamentsThere is a hole in the middle of eachvertebra for the spinal cordThe way our spine is made, it limitshow much we can bend forward/backwardSome people are more flexible than others
23-Supports the head and neck, holding the head erect. Cervical Region: C1-C7 (7bones)-Supports the head and neck, holdingthe head erect.Thoracic Region: T1-T12 (12 bones)-rigid group of bones which supportthe 24 ribsLumbar Region : L1-L5 (5bones)-largest bones in the vertebral column,carrying a large share of the bodymass. Quite mobile bones.Sacrum-transfer body weight to pelvisCoccyx- no significant function
24The Sternum and Ribs 12 pairs of ribs that are flat, curved bone. Main function is protection and support.First 7 pairs are attached by cartilage to the sternum (breast bone).These are True Ribs.Next 3 pairs lie below the sternum;each pair is attached by cartilage to the pair of ribs above. These are False RibsThe last 2 pairs are called Floating Ribs because they do not complete the circle and are not attached in front (these ribs are easily broken)
26The Upper Limbs Scapula: is loosely held in place by ligaments and muscles,so the arm has great freedom ofmovement in almost any direction.Humerus: is a long bone in the armor forelimb that runs from the shoulderto the elbow,has many attachmentsites for muscles.
27Ulna: is one of the two long bones in the forearm, with the palms facing forward the ulna is placed at themedial side of the forearm closest to the bodyRadius: is the bone of the forearm that extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. The radius is situated on thelateral side of the ulna.
28Wrist: is made up of 8 small bones (carpals) which are joined to the 5 metacarpals that form the handThe bones that make the fingers and thumbare called phalanges (there are 3 in each finger and 2 in each thumb)
31Functions of the Pelvis The pelvic girdle is a basin-shaped ring of bonesconnecting the vertebral column to the femurs(upper leg bones)Main function is to hold up the upper body and allowan attachment point for the legsSecondary function is to protect the lower organsof the urinary system and reproductive system.
32The Lower Limbs Femur: longest and strongest bone; its round, smooth head fitsinto a socket formed in the pelvisPatella: flat, disc-shaped bone justin front of the joint for protection.Loosely attached to allow movement
33Tibia: shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the twobones in the leg below the knee, andconnects the knee with the ankle bones.Fibula: is a bone located on the lateralside of the tibia, it is the smaller ofthe two bones.
34Tarsal bones: 7 of these bones make up the ankle; these provide a sliding jointwhich allows the foot to be extendedand flexed. The calcaneus is the largesttarsal bone also known as the heel bone.Metatarsals are the 5 bones in the foot.Phalanges are the bones in the toes.Each toe has 3 bones except for the‘big’ toe.(the most medial digit of the foot)