2Structure of the Skeleton We know that the 206 bones of the skeleton are split into two different groups…The Axial Skeleton – 80 bonesThe Appendicular skeleton – 126 bones
3The central core of the body or its AXIS. Consists of:SkullThe vertebraeThe sternumThe ribsThe central core of the body or its AXIS.It provides the core from which the limbs hang from.Axial Skeleton
4Appendicular Skeleton The parts/ limbs hanging off of the AXIAL skeleton.Shoulder Girdle (scapula/ clavicle)Pelvic GirdleUpper and Lower limbs
5Task…List the below Bone names into the relevant column in the table below…Location of major bones:CraniumClavicleRibsSternumHumerusRadiusUlnaScapulaIliumPubisIschiumCarpals & Metacarpals & PhalangesFemurPatellaTibiaFibulaTarsals & MetatarsalsVertebral column – (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)Axial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonAnswers!!
6Task:Match the EVERY DAY name for each bone, with its correct ANATOMICAL name.
7Task!! You will then mark each others work… In pairs: 1 person labels the other as a ‘human skeleton’. Making labels for ALL of the various bones that we have learned thus far.You also need to be to know ‘both’ names for each bone.You will then mark each others work…Task!!
8Major bones of the body explained… CraniumConsists of 8 bones fused together to PROTECT your brain.14 other facial bones that form the face and jaw…
9SternumPROTECTS the heart and acts as an ATTACHMENT point for the ribs and clavicleFlat bone in the middle of your chest shaped like a dagger.
10Ribs True Ribs Floating Ribs Adults have 12 pairs of ribs, that run between sternum and thoracic vertebrae.True RibsFalse RibsRibs are flat bones that form a PROTECTIVE cage around the HEART and LUNGS.Floating Ribs
11Situated on the upper back of the body One end is connected to the sternum and the other to the scapulaClavicleSituated on the upper back of the bodyThe role of the Clavicle is to keep the scapula the correct distance from the sternumProvides a point of attachment for many muscles of upper arm and back.Scapula
12ARM In order for the hand to move, the Radius moves across the ulna… The Humerus, Radius and Ulna all form the ELBOW joint.In order for the hand to move, the Radius moves across the ulna…UlnaRadiusHumerus
13Hand Phalanges- 14 bones Meta-Carpels Carpels- 8 bones Consists of 3 area, made up of different kind of bone.Meta-CarpelsCarpels- 8 bones
14Pelvis Consists of 3 bones fused together- ILLIUM, PUBIS and ISCHIUM Function: to PROTECT the lower internal organs… such as the bladder, reproductive organs and when pregnant the developing foetus!
15LEG Consists of 4 bones: FEMUR, FIBULA, TIBIA and PATELLA Femur: Longest bone in the body and forms the knee joint with the TIBIAPatella: Bone that floats over the knee and lie within the patella tendon and SMOOTHES the movement of the tendons over the knee.Tibia: The weight bearing bone of the lower legFibula: The non-weight bearing bone of the lower leg and helps form the ankle.
16Foot Consists of 3 areas: Tarsals, Metatarsals and Phalanges Tarsals- 7 bones-5 Bones3 Phalanges in each toe… apart from the big toe that has 2
17Vertebrae7 Cervical vertebrae make up the neck and runs to the shoulders12 Thoracic vertebrae make up the chest area5 Lumbar vertebrae make up the lower back5 vertebrae which are fixed together make the Sacrum.Coccyx is 4 bones fused together, remnants from when we had a tail!
18Types of Bone Long Bone Flat Bones Short Bone Femur Humerus Tibia MetacarpalsPhalangesFlat bones are strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment.Function of Protection and Stability, with little movementShort BoneHaving a body longer than it is wide and having growth plates at either end (epiphysis)They are approximately wide as they are longScapula (shoulder blade). The Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), Pelvis and Ribs are also classified as flat bones
19Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones These are bones that do not fit into any other category due to their unusual shape.The most obvious example: The Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon.Good examples being the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw).Sesamoid BonesSesamoid bones are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon.Sesamoid bones are usually present in a tendon where it passes over a joint, acting as protection to the tendon.
20Flat bones, Irregular bones, Sesamoid bones Types of bone:Long bones, Short bones,Flat bones, Irregular bones, Sesamoid bones1) Learners must describe the axial and appendicular skeleton.2) The different types of bone in each of the skeletons and be able to locate all of the named bones stated in the Unit content (List).3) They must also describe the function of the skeletal system.Location of major bones:CraniumClavicleRibsSternumHumerusRadiusUlnaScapulaIliumPubisIschiumCarpals & Metacarpals & PhalangesFemurPatellaTibiaFibulaTarsals & MetatarsalsVertebral column – (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)Functions:SupportProtectionAttachment for skeletal muscleSource of blood cell productionStore of minerals