5 Subdivisions of the Skeleton Axial - 80 bonesSkull - face and craniumEarbones - 3Hyoid bone - in neck,not attached to any other bonehelps in tongue movementSpinal columnSternum and ribs –thoracic cage
21 Vertebral Column – Spinal Column Longitudinal axis of skeletonFlexible due to segmentationBackbone of bodyhead balanced on topribs suspended in frontlower extremities attached belowspinal cord enclosed within
22 Division of Column Cervical vertebrae - 7 Thoracic vertebrae - 12 Framework for the neck1st = atlas2nd = axis – for neck rotationThoracic vertebrae - 12Allows for rib attachmentLumbarSupport small of backSacrum and CoccyxFusion of vertebrae
23 Structure of a Single Vertebrae Body - flat, round surfaceSpinous process - lateral projectionsTransverse process - lateral projections (winglike)Vertebral foramen - hole for spinal cordCurved - allows for strength and balance
24 Pathological Curvatures of the Spine Lordosiscurve in lumbar region is exaggerated in concavity
25 Pathological Curvatures of the Spine Scoliosisany region is abnormally curved laterally
26 Pathological Curvatures of the Spine Kyphosishunchbackconvexity in thoracic region
28 Shoulder Girdle Clavicle Scapula Forms one joint with trunk between 2 bones.All shoulder movement involves this joint.
29 Pelvic GirdleStable, circular base, supports trunk and attaches lower extremities.Three PartsIlium - largest and uppermost boneIschium - strongest and lowermost bonePubis - anteriormost boneStrong ligaments attach sacrum to each hip bone.
30 Sternum Medial part of anterior chest wall. Xiphoid process Ribs cartilaginous lower tipRibsTrue Ribs – attached to sternumFalse Ribs – their cartilages do not reach sternum directlyFloating – no attachment to sternum
31 Upper LimbHumerusLong bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow (when hit at distal end it is known as the funny bone).Upper end has smooth rounded head that fits into cavity of scapula.2 processes just below the head, greater and lesser tubercles .Provide attachment for muscles.
32 Upper Limb Continued Radius Ulna Located on the thumb side of the forearm.Extends from the elbow to the wrist and crosses over ulna.UlnaLonger than the radius.Overlaps the end of the humerus posteriorly.
33 Wrist and Hand Wrist - consists of 8 small bones - carpals 2 rows of 4 bones eachHand - palm and 5 fingersPalm - metacarpals – 5 - line up with each fingerNumbered 1 to 5 beginning with metacarpal of thumb.Fingers – phalanges - 14 in each hand3 in each fingerA proximal, a middle, and a distal phalanx2 in the thumb – missing middle phalanx
34 Lower Limb Femur Patella Thigh bone Longest bone in the body - extends from the hip to the knee.PatellaKneecapLocated in a tendon that passes anteriorly over the knee.
35 Lower Limb Continued Tibia Fibula Largest and strongest bone of the lower leg.Located medially and superficially.Atriculates with the fibula and talus to form ankle joint.FibulaSmaller lower leg bone.Located laterally and deep.
36 Foot Structure Tarsals (7) Arches allow for great support. Big toe much more stable than thumb.Tarsals (7)Create ankle bonesStrong ligaments and leg muscle tendon keeps arches of foot.
37 Foot Continued Metatarsals (5) Phalanges Framework for soles of feet. Articulate with phalanges.Numbered 1 to 5 beginning on medial side.PhalangesShorter than that of the fingers.Align and articulate with metatarsals.Each toe has 3 phalanges (same as hand).Big toe has 2.
38 Skeletal Differences Males Females Larger and heavier Pelvis is deep and funnel shapedPubic arch is narrowFemalesPelvis is shallow, broad and flaringPelvic arch is wider
39 Age Changes in Skeleton Incremental decrease in height that begins about age 30.1/16 of an inch a yearCalcium levels fallBones become brittle and increasingly prone to fracture.Osteoclasts outnumber Osteoblasts.