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Structure of the Skeleton

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1 Structure of the Skeleton
Chapter 7 Notes Structure of the Skeleton

2 Cranium Mandible Clavicle Cervical vertebrae Scapula
Thoracic vertebrae Sternum Rib Humerus Lumbar vertebrae Coxa/Pelvic girdle Radius Sacrum Ulna Coccyx Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Calcaneus Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

3 Structure of the Skeleton
Skeletal tissue forms bones. Bones are organized or grouped to form major subdivisions. Coordination of bones with joints and muscles allows for movement.


5 Subdivisions of the Skeleton
Axial - 80 bones Skull - face and cranium Earbones - 3 Hyoid bone - in neck, not attached to any other bone helps in tongue movement Spinal column Sternum and ribs – thoracic cage

6 Hyoid Bone

7 Subdivisions of the Skeleton Continued
Appendicular skeleton bones Upper extremities and Lower extremities that connect to the: Pectoral girdle - scapula and clavicle (shoulder) and Pelvic girdle - hips

8 Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle


10 Skull – 28 Bones - Major Subdivisions
Cranium - brain case – Made up of 8 bones: Frontal - forehead and anterior top Parietal (2) - give shape to top side of cranium Temporal - lower sides of cranium

11 Skull - Major Subdivisions
Occipital - framework for lower, posterior skull Sphenoid - helps form the base of the cranium Ethmoid - irregular bone, posterior to nasal bones

12 Skull - Major Subdivisions Continued
Face Maxilla Mandible - lower jaw, only movable structure of face; strongest of face Zygomatic arch -shapes cheeks Nasal bones - shapes nose

13 Skull Mastoiditis Inflammation of the air spaces within the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. Could spread to brain if left untreated.




17 Skull


19 Zygomatic bone Foramen magnum Occipital bone Occipital bone

20 Occipital Lambioid suture Sagittal suture Coronal suture Frontal

21 Vertebral Column – Spinal Column
Longitudinal axis of skeleton Flexible due to segmentation Backbone of body head balanced on top ribs suspended in front lower extremities attached below spinal cord enclosed within

22 Division of Column Cervical vertebrae - 7 Thoracic vertebrae - 12
Framework for the neck 1st = atlas 2nd = axis – for neck rotation Thoracic vertebrae - 12 Allows for rib attachment Lumbar Support small of back Sacrum and Coccyx Fusion of vertebrae

23 Structure of a Single Vertebrae
Body - flat, round surface Spinous process - lateral projections Transverse process - lateral projections (winglike) Vertebral foramen - hole for spinal cord Curved - allows for strength and balance

24 Pathological Curvatures of the Spine
Lordosis curve in lumbar region is exaggerated in concavity

25 Pathological Curvatures of the Spine
Scoliosis any region is abnormally curved laterally

26 Pathological Curvatures of the Spine
Kyphosis hunchback convexity in thoracic region


28 Shoulder Girdle Clavicle Scapula
Forms one joint with trunk between 2 bones. All shoulder movement involves this joint.

29 Pelvic Girdle Stable, circular base, supports trunk and attaches lower extremities. Three Parts Ilium - largest and uppermost bone Ischium - strongest and lowermost bone Pubis - anteriormost bone Strong ligaments attach sacrum to each hip bone.

30 Sternum Medial part of anterior chest wall. Xiphoid process Ribs
cartilaginous lower tip Ribs True Ribs – attached to sternum False Ribs – their cartilages do not reach sternum directly Floating – no attachment to sternum

31 Upper Limb Humerus Long bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow (when hit at distal end it is known as the funny bone). Upper end has smooth rounded head that fits into cavity of scapula. 2 processes just below the head, greater and lesser tubercles . Provide attachment for muscles.

32 Upper Limb Continued Radius Ulna
Located on the thumb side of the forearm. Extends from the elbow to the wrist and crosses over ulna. Ulna Longer than the radius. Overlaps the end of the humerus posteriorly.

33 Wrist and Hand Wrist - consists of 8 small bones - carpals
2 rows of 4 bones each Hand - palm and 5 fingers Palm - metacarpals – 5 - line up with each finger Numbered 1 to 5 beginning with metacarpal of thumb. Fingers – phalanges - 14 in each hand 3 in each finger A proximal, a middle, and a distal phalanx 2 in the thumb – missing middle phalanx

34 Lower Limb Femur Patella Thigh bone
Longest bone in the body - extends from the hip to the knee. Patella Kneecap Located in a tendon that passes anteriorly over the knee.

35 Lower Limb Continued Tibia Fibula
Largest and strongest bone of the lower leg. Located medially and superficially. Atriculates with the fibula and talus to form ankle joint. Fibula Smaller lower leg bone. Located laterally and deep.

36 Foot Structure Tarsals (7) Arches allow for great support.
Big toe much more stable than thumb. Tarsals (7) Create ankle bones Strong ligaments and leg muscle tendon keeps arches of foot.

37 Foot Continued Metatarsals (5) Phalanges Framework for soles of feet.
Articulate with phalanges. Numbered 1 to 5 beginning on medial side. Phalanges Shorter than that of the fingers. Align and articulate with metatarsals. Each toe has 3 phalanges (same as hand). Big toe has 2.

38 Skeletal Differences Males Females Larger and heavier
Pelvis is deep and funnel shaped Pubic arch is narrow Females Pelvis is shallow, broad and flaring Pelvic arch is wider

39 Age Changes in Skeleton
Incremental decrease in height that begins about age 30. 1/16 of an inch a year Calcium levels fall Bones become brittle and increasingly prone to fracture. Osteoclasts outnumber Osteoblasts.


41 Frontal view: Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible Clavicle Sternum Rib (True) Xyphoid process Lumbar vertebrae Ulna Radius Sacrum Coccyx Pelvic girdle (Coxa)

42 Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Metatarsals Phalanx

43 Scapula Humerus Ulna Radius Carpals Metacarpals Phalanx/ Phalanges Calcaneus Ilium Ischium

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