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Classification of Bones

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1 Classification of Bones

2 Classification of Bones
Bones are identified by: Shape A. Long bones B. Short bones C. Flat bones D. Irregular bones 2. Internal tissues A. Compact -Strong able to bear weight B. Spongy – Light, less dense 3. Bone markings

3 Internal Tissues Compact Bone Spongy Bone

4 Long Bones Are typically longer then they are wide
All of the limbs, except the wrist and ankle bones. Mostly compact

5 Flat Bones Are thin, flattened and usually curved
Found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula Have two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them

6 Flat Bones The parietal bone of the skull Figure 6–2b

7 Sutural Bones Are small, irregular bones
Are found between the flat bones of the skull

8 Irregular Bones Have complex shapes
Do not fit one of the other categories Examples: Vertebrae Pelvis

9 Short Bones Are small and thick
Cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone Examples:

10 Sesamoid (ses’ah-moyd) Bones
Special type of short bone Form within tendons Best known example is the patella - Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet


12 The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions 1. Skull
2. Vertebral column 3. Bony thorax

13 Vertebral Column Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae)
Cervical vertebrae 7 bones of the neck Thoracic vertebrae 12 bones of the torso Figure 7.13

14 Vertebral Column Lumbar vertebrae 5 bones of the lower back Sacrum
bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones Figure 7.13

15 Cervical Vertebrae: The Atlas (C1)
Has no body and no spinous process

16 Cervical Vertebrae: The Axis (C2)
The axis has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae Figure 7.16c

17 Sacrum and Coccyx The sacrum Coccyx (Tailbone)
Consists of five fused vertebrae (S1-S5), which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis Coccyx (Tailbone) The coccyx is made up of four (in some cases three to five) fused vertebrae that articulate superiorly with the sacrum

18 Sacrum and Coccyx Figure 7.18a

19 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)
The thoracic cage is composed of the thoracic vertebrae, ribs and the sternum Functions Forms a protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels Supports the shoulder girdles and upper limbs Provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles

20 Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)
Figure 7.19a

21 Sternum (Breastbone) A dagger-shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax

22 Ribs There are twelve pair of ribs forming the flaring sides of the thoracic cage All ribs attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae The superior 7 pair (true ribs) attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages Ribs 8-10 (false ribs) attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage Ribs (floatingribs) have no anterior attachment

23 Ribs Figure 7.19a

24 Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs

25 Pectoral Girdles (Shoulder Girdles)
The pectoral girdles consist of the anterior clavicles and the posterior scapulae They attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for maximum movement They provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs

26 Clavicles (Collarbones)
They provide: attachment points for numerous muscles 2. act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally away from the body

27 The Upper Limb The upper limb consists of the arm, forearm and hand.
Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb.

28 Arm The humerus is the sole bone of the arm
It articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the elbow

29 Forearm The bones of the forearm are the Radius Ulna

30 Ulna The ulna lies medially in the forearm and is slightly longer than the radius Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus

31 Hand The wrist contains 8 bones The palm contains 5 bones
 Each hand contains 14 miniature long bones called phalanges.

32 Pelvic Girdle (Hip) Transmits weight of the upper body to the lower limbs The hip is formed by a pair of hip bones and together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis Figure 7.27a

33 Femur The sole bone of the thigh
Largest and strongest bone in the body Figure 7.28b

34 Tibia Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot Fibula Sticklike bone that does not bear weight

35 Calcaneus Forms the heel of the foot
Point of attachment for the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon of the calf muscles

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