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By Monica R. and Ryan J. AP Biology Period 7

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1 By Monica R. and Ryan J. AP Biology Period 7
The Skeletal System

2 What is the Skeletal System?
In biology, the skeletal system is the biological system that provides support in living organisms.

3 Types of Skeletal Systems
There are three different types of skeletal systems: Exoskeleton- A hard encasement deposited on the surface of an animal. Endoskeleton- Consists of hard supporting elements, such as bones, buried within the soft tissues of an animal. Hydrostatic Skeleton- Consists of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment.

4 Exoskeleton Some animals with exoskeletons:
arthropods, such as insects, spiders and crustaceans other invertebrate animals, such as shelled mollusks * The exoskeletons of mollusks contain calcium carbonate. As the mollusk grows, the shell enlarges as well. * Jointed appendages are also present in organisms with an exoskeleton.

5 Endoskeleton The endoskeleton, also known as an internal skeletal system, consists of rigid (or semi rigid) structures, within the body. These structures are capable of being moved by the muscular system which surrounds it. If the skeletal structures are mineralized or ossified, as they are in humans and other mammals, they are referred to as bones. Cartilage is referred to as another common component of skeletal systems, supporting and supplementing the skeleton. Though less ridged, they are more flexible in comparison to the ossified bone, allowing for “manipulation” in shape to enable bending. For example, the human ear, nose, and ribs all consist of cartilage.

6 Hydrostatic Skeleton Hydrostatic skeletons are similar to a water-filled balloon. Located internally in cnidarians, (coral, jellyfish etc.) and annelids (leeches, earthworms etc.), among others, these animals can move by contracting the muscles surrounding the fluid-filled pouch, creating pressure within the pouch that causes movement. Animals such as earthworms use their hydrostatic skeletons to change their body shape, as they move forward, from long and thin to shorter and wider.

7 Function of Bones Protection – protect internal organs
Shape – provide a frame to support body Blood Production – the marrow produces blood cells in a process called haematopoiesis Mineral Storage – bones act as reserves of minerals, specifically calcium and phosphate Movement – Bones, skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints function together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can move. Acid-Base Balance - Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts. Detoxification – Bone tissues can remove heavy metals and other foreign substances from the blood and store them, reducing their effects of other tissues. These substances can then later be excreted.

8 The Human Skeleton Function: - Provides support for the upright body - Surrounds and protects the brain, spinal cord, lungs, and heart. - Provides for a way of locomotion Built from over 200 bones - Some bones are fused together - Others are connected by ligaments, allowing for free movement

9 Human Skeleton Cont’d…
Vertebrate Frame (2 sections): - axial skeleton, consisting of: *skull *vertebral column (backbone) - rib cage *an appendicular (relating to the appendages) skeleton made up of limb bones and the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. In each appendage, several types of joints provide flexibility for body movement and locomotion.

10 Joint Types Ball-and-socket joint: Enable us to rotate our arms and legs and move them in several planes. (Ex: joint in the shoulder girdle and hip) Hinge Joint Restrict movement to a single plane (Ex: joint between the femur and tibia) Pivot Joint Allows us to rotate (Ex: the joint at the forearm and the elbow) Gliding Joint Joints in between vertebrae Condyloid Joint Joint near throat and back of neck Pivot Joint Hinge Joint

11 Cartilage in the Endoskeleton
A type of connective tissue composed of collagenous fibers and cells called chondrocytes. These substances are embedded in the matrix. Functions: Provides a framework where bone deposition can begin Provides smooth surface for the movement of bones Locations in skeleton: Joints Ear Rib cage Nose Invertebral discs Bronchial tubes

12 Skeletal Muscle Muscle that is attached to bones by tendons
Responsible for voluntary movements of the body Skeletal muscle is also called striated muscle because the arrangement of overlapping filaments gives the cells a striped, or striated, appearance when looking under a microscope. Works with the skeletal system to allow movement and locomotion

13 Advantages of the Human Skeletal System
The design of the skeleton accounts for the demand for support based on the size of the body The different types of joints allow for a wide range of motion The human skeleton provide the body with a support system as well as flexibility and locomotion

14 Common Bones in Skeletal System

15 The End 

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