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Presentation on theme: "THE BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON"— Presentation transcript:


2 the appendicular skeleton = 126 bones of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs

pectoral girdle = scapula + clavicles upper limbs = humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges pelvic girdle = 2 os coxae or coxal bones lower limbs = femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

4 THE PECTORAL GIRDLE 2 clavicles + 2 scapula
supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment arrangement of bones is good for mobility, but bad for stability

5 THE PECTORAL GIRDLE clavicles = “collarbones” “S” shape
not very strong; easily fractured

6 THE PECTORAL GIRDLE scapulae = “spade” shoulder blades
broad, triangular bones

7 THE PECTORAL GIRDLE glenoid cavity = a depression where the head of the humerus fits

8 THE UPPER LIMBS humerus: location = upper arm
extends from the scapula to the elbow head fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula

9 THE UPPER LIMBS radius: location = forearm
on the thumb side between the elbow & wrist

10 THE UPPER LIMBS ulna = forearm
longer than the radius, overlaps the humerus

11 THE UPPER LIMBS carpals = wrist 8 bones – 2 rows of four short bones

12 THE UPPER LIMBS 5 metacarpals = palm distal ends form the knuckles
numbered 1-5 starting with the thumb

13 THE UPPER LIMBS 14 phalanges = fingers / digits
3 in each finger (proximal, middle, distal), 2 in the thumb / pollex (proximal, distal)

14 THE PELVIC GIRDLE made of 2 os coxae or coxal bones which articulate with each other & the sacrum

15 THE PELVIC GIRDLE functions include support for the trunk, attachments for the lower limbs, protection for the bladder, large intestine, & reproductive organs has a cup-shaped acetabulum which receives the head of the femur

16 THE PELVIC GIRDLE each coxal bone has 3 parts:
ilium: the largest portion, upper prominence called the iliac crest ischium: the lowest portion, you sit on the ischial tuberosities pubis: the anterior portion, fuses at the pubic symphysis

17 THE PELVIC GIRDLE the obturator foramen is a large opening where nerves & blood vessels pass from the spinal cord to the lower limbs


19 THE LOWER LIMBS femur = “thigh bone”
longest, strongest bone in the body extends from the hip to the knee head of femur fits into the acetabulum of the coxae

20 articulates with the femur
Patella = kneecap, a sesamoid bone articulates with the femur

21 THE LOWER LIMBS tibia = larger bone of the lower leg, “shin”
on the medial side of the leg

22 THE LOWER LIMBS fibula = smaller bone of the lower leg
on the lateral lower leg bears no weight

23 THE LOWER LIMBS tarsals = ankle 7 tarsal bones
the talus is the only free moving bone of the ankle the calcaneus / heel is the largest tarsal bone

24 THE LOWER LIMBS metatarsals = soles / arch
numbered 1-5 starting with the big toe longitudinal arch + transverse arch when arches weaken you may get flat feet

25 THE LOWER LIMBS phalanges = toes
14 total, 3 in each except the big toe

26 JOINTS 230 in the body = functional junctions between bones
bind parts of the skeletal system make bone growth possible allow the skeleton to change shape during birth enable movement

27 JOINTS classified according to their degree of movement = functional classification immovable slightly movable freely movable

28 JOINTS also classified according to the type of tissue binding bone = structural classification fibrous cartilaginous synovial

29 FIBROUS JOINTS: bones are tightly joined by a layer of dense connective tissue allow little or no movement ex. sutures of the skull, tibia-fibula

bones are connected by fibrocartilage allow limited movement ex. intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, 1st rib to sternum

31 SYNOVIAL JOINTS: bones are covered with articular cartilage & held together by a fibrous joint capsule (outer layer of ligaments + inner layer of synovial membrane)

32 SYNOVIAL JOINTS: some have menisci (shock-absorbing pads), some have bursae (fluid-filled sacs located between the skin & bony prominences such as knees & elbows)

33 SYNOVIAL JOINTS: types of synovial joints: gliding hinge Pivot
ellipsoidal saddle ball-and-socket

flexion / extension abduction / adduction Circumduction hyperextension Refer to handouts! retraction / protraction elevation / depression Rotation pronation / supination opposition dorsiflexion / plantar flexion eversion / inversion


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