2 Structure of the Skeleton We know that the 206 bones of the skeleton are split into two different groups…The Axial Skeleton – 80 bonesThe Appendicular skeleton – 126 bones
3 The central core of the body or its AXIS. Consists of:SkullThe vertebraeThe sternumThe ribsThe central core of the body or its AXIS.It provides the core from which the limbs hang from.Axial Skeleton
4 Appendicular Skeleton The parts/ limbs hanging off of the AXIAL skeleton.Shoulder Girdle (scapula/ clavicle)Pelvic GirdleUpper and Lower limbs
5 Task…List the below Bone names into the relevant column in the table below…cranium, clavicle, ribs, sternum, humerus, radius, ulna, scapula, ilium, pubis, ischium, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, vertebral column – cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, Fixed immovable joints, Allows movement.Axial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonAnswers!!
6 Task:Match the EVERY DAY name for each bone, with its correct ANATOMICAL name.
7 Task!! You will then mark each others work… In pairs: 1 person labels the other as a ‘human skeleton’. Making labels for ALL of the various bones that we have learned thus far.You also need to be to know ‘both’ names for each bone.You will then mark each others work…Task!!
8 Major bones of the body explained… CraniumConsists of 8 bones fused together to PROTECT your brain.14 other facial bones that form the face and jaw…
9 SternumPROTECTS the heart and acts as an ATTACHMENT point for the ribs and clavicleFlat bone in the middle of your chest shaped like a dagger.
10 Ribs True Ribs Floating Ribs Adults have 12 pairs of ribs, that run between sternum and thoracic vertebrae.True RibsFalse RibsRibs are flat bones that form a PROTECTIVE cage around the HEART and LUNGS.Floating Ribs
11 Situated on the upper back of the body One end is connected to the sternum and the other to the scapulaClavicleSituated on the upper back of the bodyThe role of the Clavicle is to keep the scapula the correct distance from the sternumProvides a point of attachment for many muscles of upper arm and back.Scapula
12 ARM In order for the hand to move, the Radius moves across the ulna… The Humerus, Radius and Ulna all form the ELBOW joint.In order for the hand to move, the Radius moves across the ulna…UlnaRadiusHumerus
13 Hand Phalanges- 14 bones Meta-Carpels Carpels- 8 bones Consists of 3 area, made up of different kind of bone.Meta-CarpelsCarpels- 8 bones
14 Pelvis Consists of 3 bones fused together- ILLIUM, PUBIS and ISCHIUM Function: to PROTECT the lower internal organs… such as the bladder, reproductive organs and when pregnant the developing foetus!
15 LEG Consists of 4 bones: FEMUR, FIBULA, TIBIA and PATELLA Femur: Longest bone in the body and forms the knee joint with the TIBIAPatella: Bone that floats over the knee and lie within the patella tendon and SMOOTHES the movement of the tendons over the knee.Tibia: The weight bearing bone of the lower legFibula: The non-weight bearing bone of the lower leg and helps form the ankle.
16 Foot Consists of 3 areas: Tarsals, Metatarsals and Phalanges Tarsals- 7 bones-5 Bones3 Phalanges in each toe… apart from the big toe that has 2
17 Vertebrae7 Cervical vertebrae make up the neck and runs to the shoulders12 Thoracic vertebrae make up the chest area5 Lumbar vertebrae make up the lower back5 vertebrae which are fixed together make the Sacrum.Coccyx is 4 bones fused together, remnants from when we had a tail!
18 Task…To achieve P1 you need to describe: • The bones that make up the axial and appendicular skeleton and what their role is. • The sections that comprise the Vertebral Column (i.e. cervical) and how many bones are in each section. • Identify the location of the major bones (i.e. cranium, clavicle, ribs, sternum, Humerus, radius, ulna, scapula, ilium, pubis, ischium, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, vertebral column - cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)• The different types of bone (i.e. long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid) and identify the major boneswithin the body.• The function of the skeletal system (i.e. support; protection; attachment for skeletal muscle; source ofblood cell production; store of minerals)