Presentation on theme: " 95-99% of animal species Animals without a backbone Many have exoskeleton : -hard or tough outer covering that provides a framework of support -protect."— Presentation transcript:
95-99% of animal species Animals without a backbone Many have exoskeleton : -hard or tough outer covering that provides a framework of support -protect soft tissues -prevent water loss -provides protections from predators -is shed as the animal grows
Some invertebrates have internal skeletons, called endoskeletons (sea urchins, sea stars) If an animal has an endoskeleton and a backbone, it is called a vertebrate. Endoskeleton grows with the animal Protects internal organs, provides support for the body, and can provide a place for muscles to attach on.
Include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Have vertebral column or spinal column Functions as a strong, flexible rod that muscles can pull against during swimming and running. Bones enable forceful contraction of muscles, improving the strength of an animal.
Functions: movement [bones + muscles movement shape – framework – support: gives your body shape produces blood cells protects internal organs [skull brain; ribs heart, lung] stores minerals calcium SPELLS: M SS PP : MISSISSIPPI
is a disease – loss of bone mass brittle, thin bones that break easily, especially in neck & femur & spine effects females Estrogen helps to maintain bone mass problems after menopause (loss of estrogen production)
other factors that may contribute to problems: - diet poor in calcium & protein - lack of Vitamin D - smoking - exercise insufficient to stress (need weight-bearing)
due to accumulation of uric acid [normal waste product of protein metabolism] accumulate in blood and deposits crystals in soft tissue usually big toe affects more males after age 30 possibly genetic