Presentation on theme: " 95-99% of animal species Animals without a backbone Many have exoskeleton : -hard or tough outer covering that provides a framework of support -protect."— Presentation transcript:
95-99% of animal species Animals without a backbone Many have exoskeleton : -hard or tough outer covering that provides a framework of support -protect soft tissues -prevent water loss -provides protections from predators -is shed as the animal grows
Some invertebrates have internal skeletons, called endoskeletons (sea urchins, sea stars) If an animal has an endoskeleton and a backbone, it is called a vertebrate. Endoskeleton grows with the animal Protects internal organs, provides support for the body, and can provide a place for muscles to attach on.
Include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Have vertebral column or spinal column Functions as a strong, flexible rod that muscles can pull against during swimming and running. Bones enable forceful contraction of muscles, improving the strength of an animal.
Functions: movement [bones + muscles movement shape – framework – support: gives your body shape produces blood cells protects internal organs [skull brain; ribs heart, lung] stores minerals calcium SPELLS: M SS PP : MISSISSIPPI
is a disease – loss of bone mass brittle, thin bones that break easily, especially in neck & femur & spine effects females Estrogen helps to maintain bone mass problems after menopause (loss of estrogen production)
other factors that may contribute to problems: - diet poor in calcium & protein - lack of Vitamin D - smoking - exercise insufficient to stress (need weight-bearing)
due to accumulation of uric acid [normal waste product of protein metabolism] accumulate in blood and deposits crystals in soft tissue usually big toe affects more males after age 30 possibly genetic
diet drugs lose weight
bones fail to calcify bones soften & bow under weight (legs) due to lack of calcium (and/or Vitamin D that is needed to absorb Calcium into blood)
Sideways curvature of the spine Makes it difficult for lungs to function properly
Cancer of blood forming tissue (Bone marrow and Lymphatic system)
Stretched or torn ligament Pain, swelling, bruising
Bones fail to calcify Bones soften and bow under weight (legs) Due to lack of Catt (and or vitamin D needed to absorb catt into blood.)
Accumulation of uric acid Accumulates in blood and deposits crystals. In soft tissue (usually big toe), affects males more (after 30), possibly genetic.